Statistics Canada - Statistique Canada

Environment:
Summary Statistics, Selected Countries, 1991



Source Canada Australia China Indonesia Japan Mexico Netherlands Sweden United States

Total area (thousand km) n 9 971 7 687 9 561 1 905 378 1 958 37 450 9 373
Land area (thousand km) n 9 216 7 618 9 326 1 812 377 1 909 34 412 9 167

POPULATION
Population (thousands) n 28 118 17 340 1 158 230 187 760 123 920 87 840 15 060 8 640 252 690
Population growth rate 1981-1991 (%) r,s 1.22 1.37 1.45 1.93 0.43 2.02 0.63 0.22 0.81
Population density (persons per km)
3.1 2.3 124.2 103.6 329.1 46.0 444.0 21.0 27.6
Percent urban q 76.2 85.5 21.4 28.8 76.9 72.6 88.5 83.9 74.1
Life expectancy (years) r 76.7 76.1 69.4 60.2 78.3 68.9 76.9 77.1 75.5
Infant mortality (per 1000 live births) m 7.2 8.0 32.0 75.0 4.5 43.0 7.1 5.6 9.1
Literacy rate (%) see note 1 m,s 99.0 99.0 73.3 77.0 99.0 87.3 99.0 99.0 99.0
Expenditures on education (% of GNP) m 6.5 5.0 2.2 0.8 4.7 2.7 6.2 6.7 6.2
ECONOMY
GDP 1990 (million $US) m 570 137 294 639 301 660 107 294 2 940 360 241 386 279 153 228 110 5 392 200
Average annual GDP growth 1980-1990 (% per year) see notes 2,3 p 3.4 3.4 9.5 5.5 4.1 1.0 1.9 2.2 3.4
      Agriculture (%) p 0.2 3.2 6.1 3.2 1.3 0.4 3.6 1.1 3.7
      Industry (%) p 3.2 3.2 12.5 5.6 4.5 1.0 2.0 2.8 2.5
      Services, etc. (%) p 3.5 3.7 9.1 6.7 3.8 1.1 1.8 1.4 3.2
GDP per capita 1990($US) m 21 497 17 244 265 598 23 801 2 802 18 681 26 651 21 571
      ICP estimates of GDP per capita 1990, see note 4 p 19 650 16 050 1 950 2 350 16 950 5 980 14 600 16 000 21 360
GDP distribution by sector, see notes 2,3,5









      Agriculture (%) p 3 4 27 22 3 9 4 3 2
      Industry (%) p 31 31 42 40 42 30 31 35 29
      Services, etc. (%) p 66 65 31 38 55 61 65 62 69
Exports 1990 (million $US) m 127 419 39 628 62 091 25 675 286 949 26 524 131 839 57 415 393 592
Exports as a proportion of GDP 1990 m 22.3 13.4 20.6 23.9 9.8 11.0 47.2 25.2 7.3
Motor vehicles per 1000 persons i,r 457 500 5 6 265 71 362 421 573

WASTES Source Canada Australia China Indonesia Japan Mexico Netherlands Sweden United States
Urban solid waste (kg per capita) j,r,s 360 581 60 62 389 240 458 304 826
Hazardous wastes (kg per US$ million GDP), see note 6 f,r 5 769 1 018 158 026 42 276 226 .. 5 372 2 191 44 186
SOx emissions (tons per US$ million GDP), see note 6 f,r 6 495 506 49 659 14 950 429 .. 1 039 964 3 838
NOx emissions (tons per US$ million GDP), see note 6 f,r 3 407 1 469 .. 6 804 476 .. 2 023 1 319 3 671
CO2 emissions (tC/capita), see note 7 m 4.35 4.32 0.61 0.21 2.34 1.01 2.54 1.60 5.26
Greenhouse gas emissions (global per capita rank), see note 8 r 8 7 111 105 29 62 35 55 6
Greenhouse gas emissions (global share (%)) r 1.68 1.13 9.12 1.69 4.66 2.01 0.52 0.22 17.81
RESOURCES
Water









      Renewable supply (km) r 2 905.0 347.2 2 803.6 2 533.6 548.0 358.1 10.0 176.1 2 481.4
      Renewable supply per capita (m) r 1 033.2 200.2 24.2 134.9 44.2 40.8 6.7 203.8 98.2
      Total use (km) r 42.2 17.9 460.7 16.7 108.1 54.3 14.6 4.2 467.8
      Use per capita (m) r 15.0 10.3 4.0 0.9 8.7 6.2 9.7 4.8 18.5
      Irrigation, share of agricultural area (%) o 1.1 0.4 10.8 22.8 54.3 5.2 27.5 3.3 4.2
      Water withdrawal (% of supply used) m 1.5 5.2 16.4 0.7 19.7 15.2 145.8 2.4 18.9
Minerals









      Metal reserve index (world=100%) r 6.1 7.6 8.4 1.5 0.4 1.0 .. 0.3 8.7
Forest Products









      Roundwood production (million m), see note 9 m 155.5 20.3 277.0 171.5 29.8 22.2 1.4 55.9 501.0
Fish









      Fish catches - all areas (thousand tonnes) m 1 624.3 210.4 12 095.4 3 080.5 10 353.6 1 401.0 438.3 260.1 5 856.0
Energy









      Energy production (Pj) r 11 789.0 5 601.4 28 483.0 4 063.4 1 375.5 7 335.1 2 440.2 496.8 60 188.4
      Energy production per capita (Mj) r 419.3 323.0 24.6 21.6 11.1 83.5 162.0 57.5 238.2
      Energy consumption (Pj) r 7 764.3 3 769.7 28 805.2 2 851.8 16 571.8 4 720.3 2 957.3 2 363.3 80 559.1
      Energy consumption per capita (Mj) r 276.1 217.4 24.9 15.2 133.7 53.7 196.4 273.5 318.8
      Energy consumption: per $US GDP (Mj) r 13.6 12.8 95.5 26.6 5.6 19.6 10.6 10.4 14.9
      Energy production/consumption (ratio) r 1.5 1.5 1.0 1.4 0.1 1.6 0.8 0.2 0.7

RESOURCES continued Source Canada Australia China Indonesia Japan Mexico Netherlands Sweden United States
Land









      Protected areas (% of total) m 9.8 6.1 3.0 10.0 12.7 5.1 8.6 6.5 10.5
      Land use









         Cropland (thousand km) r 460 490 962 213 46 247 9 29 1 901
         Permanent pasture (thousand km) r 330 4 183 3 193 118 6 746 11 6 2 417
         Forest and woodland(thousand km) m 3 590 1 060 1 265 1 134 251 425 3 280 2 936
         Other (thousand km) r 4 836 1 885 3 906 346 73 491 11 97 1 913
      Wilderness (thousand km), see note 10 r 6 411 2 296 2 109 118 - 31 - 23 441
      Land use









         Cropland (% of land area) r 5.0 6.4 10.3 11.7 12.3 13.0 27.6 6.9 20.7
         Permanent pasture (% of land area) r 3.6 54.9 34.2 6.5 1.7 39.1 31.6 1.4 26.4
         Forest and woodland (% of land area) r 39.0 13.9 13.6 62.6 66.7 22.2 8.8 68.1 32.0
         Other (% of land area) r 52.5 24.7 41.9 19.1 19.3 25.7 32.0 23.6 20.9
      Wilderness (% of land area), see note 10 r 69.6 30.1 22.6 6.5 - 1.6 - 5.6 4.8
      Average annual change 1965-1989









         Cropland (%) o 0.6 0.9 -0.3 0.9 -1.0 0.3 -- -0.3 0.2
         Permanent pasture (%) o 2.1 -0.2 -- -0.3 6.0 -- -0.9 -0.8 -0.2
         Forest and woodland (%) o 0.5 -1.5 -0.8 -0.5 -- -1.2 0.1 0.1 -0.2
         Other (%) o -0.5 1.4 0.4 1.3 0.5 1.2 1.4 -- 0.5
      Nitrogen fertilizers (kg N/ha arable land) d,k,o 24 8 138 64 145 54 557 76 51
Wildlife









      Threatened species: Mammals c,r 4 35 30 50 5 26 2 1 21
         Birds c,r 8 39 83 135 31 35 13 14 43
         Plants c,r 22 2 133 841 .. 687 111 7 9 2 476

Source:
Statistics Canada, Human Activity and the Environment 1994, Ottawa, 1994.

Notes:
1. Adult literacy is regularly monitored only in developing countries. For industrial countries where the adult literacy rate is near 100%, values of 99% are substituted.
2. Agriculture refers to agriculture, forestry, fishing and hunting. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, construction, and electricity, water and gas. Services include all other unallocated items including imputed bank service charges, import duties and any statistical discrepancies.
3. Figures for the US are based on 1987 data. Figures for Canada from Statistics Canada, Input-Output Division.
4. The International Comparisons Program of the United Nations calculates GDP per capita in terms of the "international dollar" which reflects the differing purchasing power of currencies in the respective countries.
5. Figures for Australia refer to 1988. Figures for Mexico are for 1990.
6. Figures for Australia estimated from the Australian Bureau of Statistics, 1992.
7. Figures refer to 1989 unless otherwise noted. US - 1985, Indonesia - 1988, Japan - 1988, Netherlands - 1988, Australia - 1987.
8. Where number one is the highest per capita producer of greenhouse gases.
9. Figures refer to 1990.
10. Wilderness is not mutually exclusive from the other land use categories and therefore the land area should not be compared with the other categories.

Sources:
a. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS), Australia's Environment: Issues and Facts, ABS, Catalogue No. 4140.0, 1992.
b. Central Bureau of Statistics of Indonesia (BPS), Indonesian Environmental Statistics 1992, Jakarta, 1992.
c. Committee on the Status of Endangered Species in Canada.
d. Conway, Gordon R. and Jules N. Pretty, Unwelcome Harvest, Earthscan Publications Limited, London, England, 1991.
e. Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics, Statistik Indonesia 1991, Jakarta, 1991.
f. Indonesian Ministry of Population and Environment (KLH), Kualitas Lingkungan Hidup 1992 (Environmental Quality, 1992), Jakarta, 1992.
g. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Environmental Data 1991, Paris, 1991.
h. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, OECD Environmental Data 1993, Paris, 1993.
i. State Statistical Bureau, People's Republic of China, Statistics Abstracts 1992, Beijing, 1992.
j. Statistics Canada, Municipal Waste Survey, Ottawa, 1991.
k. Statistics Canada, National Accounts and Environment Division.
l. United Nations Environment Programme, Environmental Data Report, Basil Blackwell Ltd., Oxford, 1991.
m. United Nations, Statistical Yearbook, Thirty-eighth issue, United Nations, New York, 1993.
n. United Nations, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics, UN Statistical Division, New York, 1992, and Statistics Canada.
o. World Bank, Social Indicators of Development 1991-1992, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 1992.
p. World Bank, World Development Report, 1992, Development and the Environment, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992.
q. World Resources Institute, World Resources 1990-91, Basic Books Inc., New York, 1991.
r. World Resources Institute, The 1993 Information Please Environmental Almanac, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston and New York, 1993.





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