CIA Environmental Topics


Table 133
Selected Developing Countries: Access to Sanitation Services (a) and Safe Drinking Water, (b) 1990 (Percent of Population)
Sanitation Services Safe Drinking Water
Rural Urban Rural (c) Urban (d)
Argentina 29 100 (e) 17 (e) 73 (e)
Brazil 32 84 61 95
China 81 100 68 87
Colombia 18 84 82 87
Cote d'Ivoire 100 81 80 57
Egypt 26 80 86 95
El Salvador 38 85 15 87
Ethiopia 7 (e) 97 (e) 11 (e) 70 (e)
India 3 44 69 86
Indonesia 30 79 33 35
Malaysia 94 94 66 96
Mexico 12 85 49 94
Nigeria 11 80 22 100
Pakistan 12 53 42 82
Papua New Guinea 56 57 20 93
Philippines 63 79 72 93
Thailand 86 84 (e) 85 67 (e)
Zaire 11 46 24 68

(a) Sanitation services; access to public sewers or household disposal systems.

(b) Safe drinking water; treated surface water and untreated water from protected springs and wells.

(c) Rural access; water collection that does not take up a disproportionate amount of time each day.

(d) Urban access; water piped to housing or public stand pipes.

(e) Data are for 1988.


Table 134
Selected OECD Countries: Hazardous Waste Generation, Trade, and Disposal (a) (Thousand Metric Tons)
Annual Quantity Generated Domestically Exports Imports Annual Quantity Stored or Treated Domestically
Austria 620.0 100.0 .0 280.0
Belgium 1,500.0 15.0 95.0 756.0
Canada 6,503.0 37.1 52.0 NA
Denmark 145.0 15.0 NA 140.0
France 5,848.0 45.0 234.5 4,200.0
Italy 3,246.0 12.5 .0 NA
Japan 16,869.0 NEGL NEGL NA
Netherlands 1,147.0 NA NEGL 892.0
Norway 95.6 14.5 6.3 87.4
Switzerland 606.5 (c) 126.6 5.1 485.0
United Kingdom 2,296.0 NEGL 34.2 2,330.2

(a) This table compares hazardous waste volumes in broad terms. Data presented here are the most recent available, as of 15 July 1993, from OECD and official national sources and do not represent a single baseline year. We also have not taken into account the fact that definitions of what constitutes a hazardous waste vary widely by country, as do testing procedures. Finally, many of these countries lack extensive reporting requirements and therefore, it is often difficult to accurately estimate hazardous waste generation, treatment, disposal activities, and waste flow tracking capabilities. Latest data available: 1985-92.

(b) Estimated.

(c) Minimum estimate.


Table 135
OECD: Municipal Waste Generation and Disposal
Municipal Waste Generated (Thousand Metric Tons) Percent Change Selected Disposal Methods (Thousand Metric Tons)
1985 1990 1986-90 Incineration Landfill Recycling
OECD
United States 149,100 177,500 19.0 28,900 118,300 26,500
Canada NA 16,000 NA 1,380 13,120 1,600
Japan 41,530 50,441 21.5 36,676 16,809 1,684
Norway 1,970 2,000 1.5 450 1,700 240
Switzerland 2,500 3,000 20.0 2,300 450 NA
European Union
Austria 1,727 2,506 45.1 310 1,700 400
Denmark 2,430 NA NA 1,320 720 (c) 160 (c)
Finland 2,500 3,100 24.0 50 2,400 600
France (b) 16,220 18,510 14.1 7,616 9,482 740
Germany 19,387 21,172 9.2 4,742 14,842 NA
Greece 3,023 3,000 -.8 1 2,995 NA
Italy 15,000 20,033 33.6 1,262 17,990 NA
Netherlands 6,307 7,430 17.8 2,490 3,197 (f) 300 (f)
Portugal 2,448 2,538 3.7 NA 821 NA
Spain 10,014 12,546 25.3 606 9,376 NA
Sweden 2,650 3,200 20.8 1,300 1,400 400
United Kingdom 17,000 20,000 17.6 2,500 14,000 NA

(a) The total amount disposed may not add to the total amount generated because of definitional differences, accounting errors, and time lags.

(b) Household waste only.

(c) Data are for 1985.

(d) Western area only.

(e) Percent change 1986-89.

(f) Data are for 1989.

(g) Estimated.


Table 136
Selected Countries: Land Area, Forested Area, Average Annual Deforestation
Land Area Million Hectares Forest Area % of Total Land Area (1990) Average Annual Rate of Deforestation (1981-90) (Percent)
Africa
Burundi 2.6 9 .6
Cote d'Ivoire 31.8 34 1.0
Gambia, The 1.0 10 .8
Guinea-Bissau 2.8 72 .7
Liberia 9.6 48 .5
Madagascar 58.2 27 .8
Malawi 9.4 37 1.3
Niger 126.7 2 0
Nigeria 91.1 17 .7
Rwanda 2.5 7 .2
Asia
Bangladesh 13.0 6 3.3
Burma 65.8 44 1.2
India 297.3 17 .6
Indonesia 181.2 60 1.0
Malaysia 32.9 53 1.8
Nepal 13.7 37 1.0
Philippines 29.8 26 2.9
Sri Lanka 6.5 27 1.3
Thailand 51.1 25 2.9
Vietnam 32.5 26 1.4
North and Central America
Costa Rica 5.1 28 2.6
El Salvador 2.1 6 2.1
Guatemala 10.8 39 1.6
Haiti 2.8 1 3.9
Honduras 11.2 41 1.9
Mexico 191.0 25 1.2
Nicaragua 11.9 50 1.7
Panama 7.6 41 1.7
South America
Brazil 845.7 66 .6
Colombia 103.9 52 .6
Ecuador 27.7 43 1.7

(a) Deforestation refers only to clearing of land for agriculture or other land uses. It does not include logging.


Table 137
OECD Countries: Imports of Tropical Wood, 1990 (Million US $)
Source
Total Africa Latin America Far East Oceania
OECD
United States 312.5 7.3 194.9 110.3 NEGL
Australia 108.4 NEGL 1.5 100.5 6.4
Canada 19.3 .4 4.9 14.0 .0
Iceland .2 NEGL .1 .1 NA
Japan 2,443.2 41.3 11.5 2,273.4 117.0
New Zealand 10.7 .4 NA 7.2 3.1
Norway 13.5 5.6 2.6 5.3 NA
Switzerland 8.1 5.6 .6 1.9 NA
Turkey 39.3 36.5 .1 2.7 NA
European Union
Austria 17.5 5.6 .3 11.5 .1
Belgium (a) 152.7 34.7 5.0 112.6 .4
Denmark 22.7 4.7 2.5 15.5 NA
Finland 9.1 5.5 1.0 2.6 .0
France 453.2 300.7 16.0 136.5 NEGL
Germany (b) 349.9 133.7 16.1 200.0 .1
Greece 49.5 49.1 .2 .2 NA
Ireland 50.7 39.5 8.1 3.1 NA
Italy 456.6 296.2 30.7 129.7 NA
Netherlands 324.9 47.5 11.2 266.2 NA
Portugal 142.7 132.9 6.7 3.1 NA
Spain 317.1 252.1 37.4 27.6 NA
Sweden 11.0 3.9 2.0 5.1 NA
United Kingdom 301.6 56.9 78.6 165.4 .7

(a) Including data for Luxembourg.

(b) Western area only.


Table 138
Selected Countries: Plywood Production (Thousand cubic meters)
1970 1980 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991
United States 14,078 14,857 18,562 20,311 21,089 20,835 19,700 18,771 17,300
Brazil 342 826 902 902 1,200 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,300
Canada 1,851 2,338 2,190 1,877 2,221 2,162 2,165 1,971 1,705
Finland 706 639 556 597 606 610 657 643 457
France 643 527 490 490 439 483 498 518 560
Germany (a) 569 429 336 342 350 370 406 416 NA
Indonesia 7 1,011 4,615 5,750 6,400 7,733 8,784 7,435 9,227
Japan 6,922 8,000 7,033 6,824 7,340 7,291 6,700 6,415 6,174
Malaysia 197 601 711 711 857 992 1,090 1,363 1,680
Mexico 96 254 271 272 280 229 184 157 184
South Korea 847 1,575 1,227 1,110 1,177 1,267 1,180 1,124 1,134

(a) Western area only.


Table 139
OECD: Nitrogen Oxide Emissions (Thousand metric tons)
1970 1975 1980 1985 1987 1989 1990 1991
OECD
United States 18,960 20,330 23,560 19,390 19,500 19,800 (a) 19,380 18,760 (b)
Canada 1,364 1,756 (c) 1,959 1,958 1,952 1,943 1,923 NA
Japan 1,651 1,782 1,400 NA 1,176 NA NA NA
Norway 159 179 186 216 233 220 230 218
Switzerland 149 162 196 NA 202 194 184 175
European Union
Finland NA 160 264 252 270 225 290 (b) 286
France 1,322 (d) 1,608 1,646 1,400 1,605 1,688 1,487 (b) 1,507 (b)
Germany (e) 2,345 2,530 2,944 2,928 2,931 3,000 2,605 NA
Italy 1,410 1,507 (f) 1,585 1,630 1,570 1,700 NA NA
Netherlands 456 481 (c) 571 564 553 565 552 550
Portugal 72 104 165 96 116 96 142 NA
Sweden 302 308 (c) 424 NA 325 301 396 389
United Kingdom 2,293 2,245 2,365 2,392 2,429 2,513 2,779 2,747

(a) Data are for 1988.

(b) Data are provisional.

(c) Data are for 1976.

(d) Data are for 1971.

(e) Western area only.

(f) Data are for 1973.


Table 140
Carbon Dioxide Emissions (a) (Million metric tons of carbon)
1980 1982 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1991
OECD
United States 1,259.30 1,146.90 1,187.50 1,201.30 1,204.50 1,257.50 1,310.20 1,328.90 1,346.00
Australia 55.40 59.50 59.40 59.60 60.90 64.60 65.80 70.27 71.50
Canada 115.80 108.20 110.60 109.60 107.10 112.00 119.40 124.33 112.10
Japan 254.90 244.60 264.30 254.20 248.90 246.90 269.80 283.99 297.80
European Union
France 132.10 114.40 104.70 103.30 98.20 96.10 87.20 97.48 102.10
Germany 264.64
Eastern 83.70 84.10 86.00 90.20 91.20 91.10 89.30 NA NA
Western 208.00 184.50 187.00 185.20 185.00 181.20 182.70 175.05 NA
Italy 101.60 96.80 95.70 97.80 93.10 98.60 98.10 106.37 109.90
Spain 54.50 54.50 49.80 51.80 47.10 46.90 51.50 55.47 60.00
United Kingdom 160.60 150.70 142.40 151.30 153.60 155.00 152.50 155.15 157.52
Selected East European
Bulgaria 30.30 31.40 31.80 34.20 35.00 35.30 33.90 29.20 15.50
Hungary 23.00 23.20 24.20 23.10 23.30 23.50 21.80 17.49 17.40
Poland 125.40 114.20 119.30 122.60 124.50 127.90 125.30 120.34 84.10
Romania 54.50 53.40 54.50 55.90 56.40 59.20 60.20 57.91 37.70
Other
Brazil 48.20 45.80 46.40 48.40 53.60 54.30 55.20 56.48 58.80
China 406.40 431.50 494.80 537.30 567.40 594.40 609.90 651.91 694.10
India 95.60 109.20 122.50 134.30 143.60 152.10 163.80 177.93 192.00
Mexico 71.00 86.90 77.40 78.60 77.60 81.50 83.70 87.26 92.80
South Africa 58.20 63.50 72.60 73.70 75.70 76.80 77.50 76.00 76.10
South Korea 34.30 36.30 41.90 45.30 46.00 48.40 55.80 60.30 72.20

(a) Emissions from energy use and cement manufacturing. In 1987, worldwide, energy use provided 97.5 percent of emissions and cement 2.5 percent. Because of reporting changes no data for 1990 are available.


Table 141
OECD: Sulfur Dioxide Emissions (Thousand metric tons)
1970 1975 1980 1985 1989 1990 1991
OECD
United States 28,400 25,500 23,780 21,670 21,510 21,060 20,730 (a)
Canada 6,677 5,319 (b) 4,643 3,692 3,695 3,323 (a) 3,306 (a)
Japan 4,973 2,586 1,263 NA 876 NA NA
Norway 171 137 141 91 60 54 46
Switzerland 125 109 126 95 68 63 61
European Union
Denmark 574 420 449 341 193 181 NA
Finland 515 535 584 382 244 260 194
France 2,966 3,328 3,348 1,451 1,281 1,200 (a) 1,314 (a)
Germany (d) 3,743 3,334 3,194 2,396 961 939 NA
Italy 2,830 3,331 (b) 3,211 2,241 1,988 NA NA
Netherlands 807 427 502 259 210 208 204 (a)
Portugal 116 178 266 199 NA 211 NA
Sweden 930 690 489 261 156 128 105
United Kingdom 6,424 5,368 4,898 3,724 3,719 3,780 3,565

(a) Data are provisional.

(b) Data are for 1976.

(c) Data are for 1984.

(d) Western area only.


Table 142
Selected Countries: Participation in Major International Environmental Agreements
Antartic Treaty (b) Basel Convention (c) Biodiversity Convention (d) Climate Change Convention (e) CITES (f) London Convention (g) Montreal Protocol (h) Nuclear Test Ban (i) Whaling (j)
Argentina X X X X X X X X X
Australia X X X X X X X X X
Austria X X X X X X X
Belgium X X X X X X
Brazil X X X X X X X X X
Canada X X X X X X X X
Chile X X X X X X X X X
China X X X X X X X X X
Denmark X X X X X X X X X
Egypt X X X X X X X X
Finland X X X X X X X X X
France X X X X X X X X
Germany X X X X X X X X
Hungary X X X X X X X X
India X X X X X X X X
Indonesia X X X X X X
Iran X X X X
Iraq X
Ireland X X X X X X
Italy X X X X X X X X
Japan X X X X X X X X X
Kenya X X X X X X X
Malaysia X X X X X X
Mexico X X X X X X X X
Morocco X X X
Netherlands X X X X X X X X X
New Zealand X X X X X X X X X
Nigeria X X X X X X X
Norway X X X X X X X X X
Philippines X X X X X X X
Poland X X X X X X X
Portugal X X X X X X
Romania X X X X X X X
Russia X X X X X X X X
Saudi Arabia X X X
Slovenia X X X X
South Africa X X X X X X X
South Korea X X X X X X
Spain X X X X X X X X X
Sweden X X X X X X X X X
Switzerland X X X X X X X X X
Thailand X X X X
Turkey X X X
United Kingdom X X X X X X X X X
United States X X X X X X X
Ukraine X X X X
Venezuela X X X X X X
Zaire X X X X X X X
Zimbabwe X X X X

(a) Countries that have signed and ratified the agreement.

(b) To ensure that Antartica is used for peaceful purposes.

(c) To reduce transboundary movement of wastes to a minimum consistent with environmentally sound and efficient disposal practices.

(d) The Biodiversity Convention binds parties to take action to preserve global species diversity.

(e) The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora protects endangered species by import and export permits.

(f) The Climate Change Convention encourages all parties to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions.

(g) The London Convention regulates at-sea dumping of hazardous wastes.

(h) The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer phases out consumption and trade of ozone-depleting substances.

(i) To put an end to the armaments race and eliminate incentives for the production and testing of all types of weapons, including nuclear weapons.

(j) To protect all species of whales from over exploitation.


Table 143
Selected OECD Countries: Government R&D Expenditures for Environmental Protection, 1988-91
Million 1985 US $
1988 1989 1990 1991 1991 (Environmental R&D as a Share of Total Government R&D) Percent
Austria 6.0 5.5 6.2 12.1 1.8
Canada 38.0 39.0 41.8 41.3 1.6
Denmark 14.1 17.1 20.9 18.9 3.5
Finland 9.5 8.8 8.1 11.3 1.9
France 84.5 78.5 78.0 81.7 .7
Germany (a) 327.3 338.9 361.1 390.1 3.6
Greece 4.8 6.3 5.1 4.2 2.5
Ireland 2.0 1.1 1.5 1.6 1.3
Italy 128.6 109.0 129.6 169.7 2.8
Japan (a) 35.1 34.9 39.7 46.0 .5
Netherlands 59.2 79.7 71.8 69.0 4.1
Norway 11.8 14.2 16.0 19.0 3.3
United Kingdom 93.9 80.0 99.2 112.5 1.7
United States 276.0 293.3 335.4 361.2 .7

(a) Western area only.

(b) OECD estimate.


Table 144
OECD: Common Air Pollutant Emissions (Thousand metric tons)
Carbon Monoxide Particulates Hydrocarbons
1980 1991 Percent Change 1980 1991 Percent Change 1980 1991 Percent Change
Austria 1,636 1,503 -8 79 38 -52 374 419 12
Canada 10,273 10,781 5 (a) 1,907 1,709 (a) -10 (a) 2,099 2,256 7 (b)
Finland 660 484 (b) -27 (b) NA NA NA 163 229 (b) 40 (b)
France 9,316 7,338 -21 427 287 -33 1,975 1,877 (a) -5 (a)
Germany (c) 12,006 8,177 (b) -32 (b) 692 450 (b) -35 (b) 2,754 2,545 (b) -8 (b)
Iceland 29 45 55 NA NA NA 5 10 100
Ireland 497 454 (b) -9 (b) 94 105 (b) 12 (b) 101 97 (b) -4 (b)
Italy 5,487 6,590 20 (d) 433 501 (d) 16 (d) 696 1,912 (d) 175 (d)
Netherlands 1,518 993 -35 158 71 -55 560 447 -20
Norway 885 909 3 24 21 -13 169 253 50
Portugal 3,403 2,263 -33 NA 1,680 NA 700 1,280 (b) 83 (b)
Switzerland 711 406 -43 28 20 (b) -29 (b) 311 290 -7
United Kingdom 5,034 6,735 34 560 498 -11 2,442 2,596 6
United States 99,970 62,100 -38 9,060 7,410 -18 21,750 16,880 -22

(a) Data are for 1985.

(b) Data are for 1990.

(c) Western area only.

(d) Data are for 1989.


Table 145
Selected Countries: Paper Production, Consumption, and Waste Paper Recovery
Production (b)Thousand Metric Tons Consumption (b) Thousand Metric Tons Waste Paper Recovery (b) As Percent of Paper Consumption
Argentina 973 971 43
Australia 1,729 2,570 30
Austria 2,600 1,083 49
Brazil 4,734 3,710 39
Canada 16,417 5,950 21
Chile 445 370 54
China 14,159 13,200 22
Denmark 326 1,085 31
Egypt 160 530 29
Finland 8,472 1,115 34
France 6,216 7,934 33
Germany (c) 10,591 12,346 41
Hungary 520 680 29
Israel 170 470 21
Japan 24,657 24,940 48
Netherlands 2,399 2,800 54
New Zealand 693 561 18
Portugal 679 662 41
South Korea 3,613 3,300 39
Spain 3,368 3,897 37
Sri Lanka 27 75 22
Sweden 8,111 2,050 48
Switzerland 1,207 1,005 61
Thailand 500 811 35
Turkey 413 979 24
United Kingdom 4,318 9,286 30
United States 68,878 77,057 30
Zimbabwe 82 86 30

(a) Value is a three year average for 1987-1989.

(b) Data are for 1988.

(c) Western area only.



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