Chemical Engineering, Science & Technology Timeline

Compiled by Luis Klemas

Information without knowledge is noise, knowledge without wisdom is dangerous stupidity

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[Before 1800] [1800-1899] [1900-1924] [1925-1949] [1950-1974] [1975-2000]

Chemical Engineering, Science, Biology, Ecology, Environment.

Nobel Price

general Science & Technology

Social, Military, Political, and historic milestone events

Arts (Music, Painting, Literature, ...)

~440 BC: Democritus proposed the concept of atom to describe the ultimate indivisible, indestructible particles that composed the substance of all things. Lucretius (95-55 BC) wrote De rerum natura inspired in the ideas of Democritus and Epicurus.

399 BC: Socrates, the great Greek philosopher, destroyed the arguments of many powerful and respected authorities, with a simple question and answer dialectic. Thus he became subversive to the established political order and was accused of impiety and innovation, he was condemned to death, to drink an infusion of hemlock.  

~390 BC: Plato develops his philosophy and theory of knowledge

~340 BC: Aristotle proposed that Earth is a sphere, that space is continuous and always filled with matter. He also laid the basis of physics, metaphysics and geocentric cosmology.

~295 BC: Euclid develops the elements of mathematics

~260 BC: Aristarchus of Samos estimated distance and size of moon from Earth's shadow during lunar eclipse. He set the basis of heliocentric cosmology.

~250 BC: Archimedes studied the equilibrium of planes and the centre of gravity of planes and deduced the laws of the levers. He also studied the sphere and the cylinder to deduce the surface area from which the value of pi could be established. Archimedes could evaluate the relative density of the bodies by observing the bouyancy force when immersed in water. By all above he may be considered as the precursor of static mechanics.

~240 BC: Eratosthenes of Cyrene, director of Alexandria library, calculated the diameter of Earth by measuring the sun shadow at noon in Siena (Egypt) and Alexandria located at ~800 km north of Siena. Knowing that the Earth is spheric, and the measured angle between both places is 7 degrees, the circumference of the spheric earth is aprox 50 times that distance, that is approx 40,000 km, surprisingly close to the actually known values. This fact was ignored during centuries when earth was considered flat and the center of the universe. ...Read about Flat Earth History

~140 BC: Hypparcus estimated size of moon from parallax of eclipse

1-33: Jesus Christ was born. He taught the supremacy of spiritual values and promised the human salvation through the practice of love, the recognition and respect of a God Father,  and the renunciation to the terrenal low passions. These teachings were subversive both to the Roman rulers in Jerusalem and to the Jewish Rabins. For this 'crime' Christ was condemned to the crucifiction death. His followers, the apostols, spread his teachings and set the foundations of a new religion: Christianism.   

~70: Pliny the Elder wrote his Historia Naturalis, a kind of universal enciclopedia in 39 books, compiling all that was known about science of his day.  In his chemistry related pages, the description of gold properties and manufacture are exceptionally precise and correct. Plinio died in Pompei during the eruption of the volcano the year 79.

~100 Hero of Alexandria discovered the expansionof air with heat and set the laws of light reflection

~130: Claudius Ptolemaeus (Ptolemy) wrote a mathematical and geographical treatise describing all ancient known information about distances and locations of known places in earth, and a catalogue of 1022 stars with positions calculated with trigonometric analyisis. The Ptolomeic model puts the earth as the center of the universe: the sun, the stars and planets revolve in circular orbits around the earth. This model was in accordance with the views of Aristote, and his geocentric cosmology of epicycles remained the standard interpretation for more than a millenium, until the time of Copernicus. 

721: Abu Hayyan preparation of chemicals such as nitric acid.

890: Al-Razi discovered andromeda galaxy and proposed atomic matter and space

1000: Ali Al-hazen worked on reflection, refraction, lenses, and a pin hole camera to demonstrate that light travels in stright line.

1260: Roger Bacon set the basis of empiricism

1266: Ambrosio di Bondone Giotto (1266-1317) was the founder of the Florence School. He painted Life of Saint Francis (1296) and Life of Christ in 1304.

1347: William Occam enunciated the principle now known as Occam's Razor: "what can be explained by the assumption of fewer things is vainly explained by the assumption of more things".

1440: Nicholas de Cusa wrote De docta ignorantia, published 1n 1514, in which asserted that the world had no boundaries, and consequently neither a perifery or a centre; it was not infinite, merely interminate. Thus he denied the accepted hierarchic structure and introduced a relativistic view of the complimentarity of oposites. In other field, he suggested that plants grew by assimilation of water.

1475-1564: Michelangelo Buonarroti was born in Florence. He became famous in 1497 with Bacchus and then in 1501 finished La Pieta. From 1508 to 1512 he was forced by the Pope Jules II to paint the cieling of the Sixtine Chappel. Paul III charges him the The Last Judgement in 1536, which he concludes in 5 years.

1480-1494 Leonardo de Vinci description of parachute, reflection of light and sound, capillary action, flying machines, pendulum clock

1483-1520: Raphael Sanzio, Italian School, author of The Dream of the Chevalier, The Wedding of the Virgin.

1492: Cristóbal Colon (Christopher Columbus) arrives to the shores of a new continent, heading the Spanish sailing expedition, that expected to arrive to India. The continent was later called America in honor to the italian cartograph Americo Vespucci.

1500: Leonardo da Vinci (1452 -1519) painted  Mona Lisa del Giocondo in Florence. He pointed out that animals could not survive in an atmosphere that would not support combustion. In 1515 he pursued progress and inventions in mechanics, aerodynamics and hydraulics.

1540: Johann Gutenberg received from Johann Fust an advance of 800 guilders to develop his printing "tool". Probably the first book printed was a vocabulary called Catholicon and then the Latin Bible.

1543: Nicolaus Copernicus published the Book of revolutions of the Heavenly spheres, writensince 1514, which remained usold and unread. The Copernicus heliocentric model of universe is a revision of the Ptolomeic model which had become too complex and inaccurate to accomodate the known celestial bodies movements, based on a geocentric conception that already required around 80 different orbital layers or epicycles.  

1543: Andreas Vesalius made first modern interpretation of anatomic structures in De Humani Corporis Fabrica.

1546: Hieronymus Francastorius wrote On Contagion, the first known discussion of the phenomenon of contagious infection.

1553: Michael Servet asserted that blood circulates from the heart to the lungs and back to the left ventricle of the heart.

1565: Bruegel The Elder painted The Misanthrope and the series The Months.

1572: Tycho Brache observes a supernova, a comet beyond the moon, and constructs a planetary observatory.

1577-1640 Petrus Paulus Rubens great master of the Flemish School during the 17th century.

1581: Galileo Galilei observes the constancy of period of pendulum. In 1589 showed that objects fall at the same rate independent of their mass. In 1592 suggests that the physical laws of the heavens are the same as those in earth. In 1604 he established that distance for falling objects increases as square of time. In 1609 builds a telescope. In 1610 observes the phases of Venus, the moons of Jupiter, the craters of the moon, stars in the Milky Way, the ring structures around Saturn. In 1612 works on hydrostatics and the concept of inertia. In 1632 supports the Copernican heliocentric system. In 1636 is condemned by the Inquisition tribunal and forbbiden to teach and write on these theories.

1604: Johanes Kepler works on mirrors, lenses and vision. In 1609 he establisshes the 1st and 2nd laws of planetary motion, and develops the notion of energy. In 1611 sets the principles of the astronomical telescope. In 1619 enonces the 3rd law of planetary motion.

1606-1669: Rembrandt (Harmenzoon Van Rijn) great Dutch painter. By the end of his life, in poverty and suffering, painted magnificent works such as The Anatomy Lesson, The Philosopher, and Selfportrait.

1616: William Harvey demonstrated his findings on the circulation of blood. In 1628 he published Exercitacio Anatomica Motu Cardis et Sanguinis in Animalibus, in which he describes the function of the circulatory system, including the notion of the heart as a mechanical pump.

1619: René Descartes, famous by his Cogito ergo sum, established the racionalism. Worked on inertia mechanistic physics, and refraction. He postulated that impulses originating in the sensory receptors of the body were carried to the central nervous system where they activated muscles by what he called "reflection".

1620: Francis Bacon writes on the empirical scientific method.

1635: John Winthrop, Jr., opens America's first chemical plant in Boston. They produce saltpeter (used in gunpowder) and alum (used in tanning).

1640: Evangelista Torricelli theory of hydodynamics. In 1644 devised the mercury barometer and created artificial vacuum.

1642: Blaise Pascal invented a machine to perform additions and substraction, the Pascalina a remote precursor of calculating machines. In 1648 explained that baromer pressure is the result of the atmospheric pressure.

1660:  Nicaise Le Febvre, in Traité de la Chymie held that the function of air in the respiration was to purify the blood.

1660: Robert Boyle found tjhat sound will not travel in vaccum, coceived a corpuscular theory of matter and investigated chemical elements, acids and bases. In 1662 found that the volume occupied by the same sample of any gas at constant temperature is inversely proportional to the pressure. This statement is known as Boyle's law. He also conducted experiments upon gases and effect of Combustion and Respiration on the atmosphere. In 1670 he produced hydrogen by reacting metals with acid.

1668: Publication of John Mayow's Treatise on respiration, containing accounts of experiments on alterations produced in air by respiration and combustion.

1680: Isaac Newton demonstrates that inverse square law implies eliptical planet orbits, in 1684 set the inverse square law and mass dependence of gravitypublised , and in 1687 publishes his "Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Matematica". The whole development of modern science begins with this great book. Newton set the foundations of mechanics, both cosmologic and terrestrial, the theory of gravitation, a theory of light, and also concurrently with Leibnitz in 1684, the invention of differential calculus, just to mention the most remarkable of his achievements.

1683: Antoni von Leewenhoek discovered bacteria.

1685: Johan Sebastian Bach  (1685-1750) born in Eisenach-Thuringia. Generally regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time.

1690: John Locke enuntiated that knowledge comes only from experience and sensations.

1694: Rudolph Camerarious published De Sexu Plantarium Epistola, which presented a conclusive demonstration of the sexuality of plants.

1709: Gabriel Fahrenheit constructed the alcohol thermometer, and in 1714 the mercury thermometer

1710: Publication of John Ray's Historia Insectorum, and in 1713 Synopsis of Birds.

1715: Thomas Fairchild announced the production of the first artificial hybrid plant.

1720's: Newcomen's steam engine comes into general use.

1722: Réamur published "L'art de convertir le Fer Forgé en Acier" solving the secret garded mistery of steel-makers, that steel is iron containing not too much, not too little carbon. He developed the alcohol/water thermometer in 1731.

1727: Stephen Hales concluded that plants are nourished in part by the atmosphere. He also studied the ascent of water in plants and applied physical principles to the study of plant physiology. In 1773 he made the first measurement of blood pressure.

1736: Leonhard Euler develops differential equations in mechanics. In 1744 the Euler-Lagrange equations and in 1746 the wave theory of light refraction and dispersion. In 1765 work on rigid body motions.

1738: Daniel Bernoulli work on kinetic theory of gas, and hydrodynamics

1742: Anders Celsius developed the centigrade temperature scale.

1743: Jean d'Alembert introduces the concept of energy in newtonian mechanics. In 1744 develops the theory of fluid dynamics. 1752 on viscosity.

1746: Charles Binnet studied photosynthesis in plants. Roebuck deviced a process to manufacture sulphuric acid.

1749: England begins a Lead-Chamber Method to produce sulphuric acid.

1749: George Louis de Buffon's Histoire Naturelle asserted that species were mutable.

1750: Benjamin Franklin theory of electricity and lightning.

1750's: Classic British Industrial Revolution begins (often said to last until 1830's, however The Industrial Revolution continues to this day).

1756: Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756 Salzburg - 1791 Vienna) One of the greatest musicians in all times, together with Bach and Beethoven.

1756: Joseph Black discovery of carbon dioxide. In 1761 mesured latent and specific heats.

1758: Carl von Linné published Sistema Naturae, introducing many concepts used today by taxonomists.  

1759: Caspar Friedrich Wollf's Theoria Generationis proposed an epigenetic theory of development which was oposed to preformationism and laid the basis for modern embriology.

1760's: James Watt improves on the Newcomen Engine.

1761: Joseph Kölreuter published reports in artificial hybridisation.

1766: Henry Cavendish discovered "inflamable air" (hydrogen), which he concluded to be a combination of water and phlogiston, since its combustion yielded water.

1770: Ludwig van Beethoven (1770 Bonn - 1827 Vienna) One of the greatest composers of the classical period and of all time.

1770: John Priestley discovered Oxygen and showed that is consumed by animals and produced by the plants.

1772: Daniel Rutherford described "residual air", the first published description of Nitrogen.

1772: Joseph Priestley and Jan Ingenhousz investigated photosynthesis.

1772:  Antoine Lavoisier proposed the concept of conservation of mass in chemical reactions, showed that fire is due to the exothermic reaction between substances and oxygen. He named a gas discovered by Cavendish, that burned to produce water, hydrogen (Greek, water producer). Also demonstrated that CO2, nitric acid, and sulphuric acid contained oxygen. In 1778 Lavoisier demonstrated the nature of animal respiration, in 1787 demonstrated the distinction between elements and compounds, and created a system for naming chemicals. In 1789 proved the conservation of mass in chemical reactions.

1774: Carl Scheele discovered element chlorine and in 1781 molybdenum. In 1774 Johann Gahn separated Manganese.

1776: The United States declares its independence from England.

1779: Jan Ingelhousz showed that illumination was required for oxygen production in plants. He also showed that plants use carbon dioxide.

1780: Luigi Galvani  noticed that several pairs of frog's legs contracyed whenever there was a spark; six years latter he observed that it ws really not necessary to have the electrical apparatus, that the frogs' legs would contract if two different metals in contact were applied to the nerve and the muscle. Lazaro Spallanzani performed experiments in artificial fertilisation in amphibians, silkmoth, and dog.

1780: Antoine Lavoisier and Pierre Laplace published their Memoire on Heat, in which they reach the conclusion that respiration is a form of combustion.

1781: The Americans defeat the British in the last major battle of the War of Independence at Yorktown, Virginia.

1783: Lazaro Spallanzani performed experiments demonstrating that digestion is a chemical process rather than a mechanical grinding of the food.

1785: Charles de Coulomb measured atraction and repulsion forces of electricaly charged particles, and discovered that these forces are inversely proportional to the square of the distance.

1787: The U.S. Constitution is written.

1787: Jacques Alexandre César Charles studied the gas volume changes with temperature finding that volume changes 1/273 for each 1° C at the water freezing temperature  and in 1802 Louis Joseph Gay-Lussac was the first to announce this behaviour as a general gas law.

1789: The French Revolution.

1789: Antoine Lavoisier published Traité Elémentaire de Chimie, in which Fermentation is described as the splitting of sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Lavoisier established the principle of mass balance or in other words the conservation of matter.

1789: Nicholas Le Blanc develops his process for converting common salt into soda ash.

1790: Metric System is introduced in France

1795: Alessandro Volta showed how to produce electricity by simply putting two different pieces of metal together, with liquid or damp cloth between them, and he thus produced the first electrical current battery.

1798: Thomas Robert Malthus published his Essay on the Principles of Population.

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1800: Karl Friederich Burdach coined the term "Biology" to denote the study of human morphology, physiology and psychology.

1800: William Herschel identified infrared rays from the sun. in 1801 Johan Ritter discovered ultraviolet rays.

1802: Jean Baptiste Lamarck elaborated a theory of evolution based on heritable modification of organs. Joseph Gay-Lussac found relation between temperature and volume of gas at constant pressure.

1802: The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company (Du Pont) is founded and builds a gunpowder factory along the banks of the Brandywine River near Wilmington, Delaware.

1803: William Wollaston found elements rhodium and palladium. Smithson Tennant discovered elements osmium and iridium.

1804: John Dalton enuntiated the Law of partial pressures, known as Dalton's law.

1804: Nicholas Theodore de Saussure published experiments on photosynthesis, and described the balanced equation of the process.

1805: Geoges Cuvier published his Lessons in Comparative Anatomy.

1806: Louis Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Robiquet first isolated an amino acid, asparagine, from asparagus.

1807: Humprey Davy utilized electric current to prepare metals from molecules, such as sodium, potasium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium. He proposed an atomic theory of chemical reactions.

1808: Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac Law of gas volumes in chemical reactions. In 1810 deduced the equations of alcoholic fermentation.

1809: Jean Baptiste Lamarck investigated the microscopic structure of plants and animals and percieved that cellular tissue is the general matrix of all organization. He also published his Philosophie Zoologique, where enphasized the fundamental unity of life.

1809: Nicolas François Appert, inventor and bacteriologist, demonstrated a procedure for preservation of foods by canning.

1811: Amadeo Avogadro demonstrated that equal volumes of all gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules, and that a fixed number of molecules of any gas will weight proportional to the molecular weight. Presently the accepted value for the Avogadro number is 6.023 x 1023 molecules per gram-mol. Bernard Courtois discovered element iodine.

1815: Joseph von Fraunhofer developed the spectroscope. William Prout proposed that atomic weights of elementsa are multiples of that for hydrogen.

1817: Johan Arfvedson discovered element lithium. Jons Berzelius discoverted selenium and later, in 1824 isolated element zirconium.

1819: Dulong and Petit developed a relation of specific heats to atomic weight in solid elements.

1820: Andre Ampere force on an electric current in a magnetic field. Hans Christian Oersted found that na electric current deflects a magnetised needle; he also isolated element aluminum. Biot and Savart enuntiate the force law between ana electric current and a magnetic field. Thomas Seebeck works on thermocouple and thermochemistry.

1821: Michael Faraday plotted thje magnetic field around a conductor, and created the first electric motor. In 1823 he liquifies chlorine.

1822: Charles Babbage develops a prototype calculating machine. Ampere discovers that two wires with electric current attract.

1824: Sadi Carnot published his Reflexions sur la Puissance Motrice du Feu, setting various outstanding principles that constitute the basis of actual Thermodynamics. Exploring various cycles and the efficiency of conversion of heat into mechanical work reached several fundamental generalizations such as: 1. when a body has undergone many changes and after a certain number of transformations is brought back identically to its original state, considered relatively to density, temperature, and mode of aggregation, it must contain the same quantity of heat as it contained originally. 2. The motive power obtainable from heat is independent from the agents employed to realize it; the efficiency achievable is fixed solely by the temperature of the bodies between which, in the last resort, transfer of heat is effected. All above statements constitute the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. Carnot also advanced in the concept of the equivalence of heat energy and mechanic energy, which is known today as the Law of Conservation of Energy or the 1st Law of Thermodynamics. Later, in 1846, Joule accomplished a more precise demonstration of such equivalence for various forms of energy (heat - electrical - mechanical).  

1827: J. B. Fourier outlines atmospheric process by which earth's temperature is altered, using a hothouse analogy. Georg Ohm work on electrical resistance and enounces Ohm's law. Robert Brown investigated brownian motion. Antoine Balard identifies element bromine.

1828: Friederich Wöhler synthesized the first organic compound from inorganic compounds, preparing Urea by reacting lead cyanate with ammonia. He also isolates element yttrium.

1829: Thomas Graham gas diffusion law. Jons Berzelius identified element thorium.

1830-40: Justus von Liebeg developed techniques in quantitative analysis and applied them to biological systems, and the concept that vital activity could be explained in physico-chemical terms.

1831: Michael Faraday showed that the relation between magnetism and electricity was dynamic and not static ---that a magnet had to be moved near an electric conductor for the current to arise. This crucial observation showed that not only was magnetism equivalent to electricity in motion but also, conversely, electricity was magnetism in motion. Faraday designed the electric dynamo, the electric transformer and set the laws of electrolysis. Later, Clerk Maxwell summarized in concise form the electromagnetic theory.

1833: Jean Baptiste Boussingnault recommended the use of iodized salt to cure goiter. Later in 1850 Boussingnault demostrated that plants can grow on inorganic soil, so that they obtain their carbon from the atmospheric CO2, but the nitrogen is obtained from the soil.

1835: Ralph Waldo Emerson writes the essay Nature.

1835: Jöns Jacob Berzelius demonstrated that the hydrolysis of starch is catalised more efficiently by malt diastase than by sulphuric acid. He published the first general theory of chemical catalysis.

1837: René Dutrochet recognized that chlorophyll was necessary for photosynthesis.

1838: Daguerre, L.: Photography. Opium war (1839-1842) between England and China

1839: Pierre François Verhulst developed the logistic model of population growth.

1840: Publication of Justus von Liebig's Thierchemie. wich united the field of chemistry and physiology. He pointed out that that organic compounds in plants are synthesized from carbon dioxide of the atmosphere while nitrogenous compounds are derived from precursors in the soil.

1842: Julius Robert Mayer enunciated the Law of Conservation of Energy (1st Law of Thermodynamics), after establishing the work equivalent of Heat. Christian Doppler develops the theory of Doppler effect for ssound and light. James Joule mechanical and electrical equivalent of heat. Eugene-Melchior Peligot isolated element uranium.

1844: Morse, S.: First telegraph circuit.

1845: Herman. von Helmoltz and Julius Robert Mayer formulated the Laws of Thermodynamics.

1845: Alfred Kolbe synthesized acetic acid. Kark Klaus identified element ruthenium.

1846: Gustav Kichhoff enuntiated Kirchhoff's laws of electrical networks. Adams and Le Verrier predicted position of Neptune.An ether-soaked sponge became the first successful surgical anesthetic helping to remove a tumor at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.

1848: William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) created the absolute temperature scale and in 1851 defined the absolute zero temperature. James Joule deduced the average velocity of gas molecules from kinetic theory.

1848: Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: The Communist Manifesto The American-Mexican War comes to a close.

1849: Armand Fizeau first accurate measurement of the velocity of light.

1850: Rudolf Clausius generalised second law of thermodynamics. The first petroleum refinery consisting of a one-barrel still is built in Pittsburgh by Samuel Kier.

1850: Claude Bernard isolated glycogen from the liver, showed that it is converted into blood glucose, and discovered the process of gluconeogenesis.

1852: Jean Foucault demonstrates rotation of Earth with a pendulum and constructs the first gyroscope. Joule and Thomson found that an expanding gas cools, known as the Joule-Thomson effect.

1853: Kerosene is extracted from petroleum.

1854: Louis Pasteur discovered microbial fermentation of beet sugar. Hermann von Helmholtz predicts the Heath death of the universe. George Airy estimate of Earth mass from underground gravity.

1854: The Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company becomes the first oil company in the U.S. H.D. Thoreau published "Walden"

1855: W. Whitman published "Leaves of the Grass". The Universal Exhibition in Paris.

1855: Benjamin Silliman, of New Haven, Connecticut, obtain valuable products by distilling petroleum. They include; tar, naphthalene, gasoline, and various solvents.

1856: Seeking to make a substitute for quinine, the first artificial aniline coal tar dye is discovered by William H. Perkin.

1856: Carl Friederich Wilhem Ludwig develops perfusion techniques for keeping animal organs alive after removal from the body. He also invented the kymograph, mercurial blood pump and a blood flow measuring device. Ludiwg was first to study the role of the nervous system on blood flow and secretory function.

1856: Bessemer devised a process to make cast steel in a large scale, by blowing air throgh melted pig iron to burn the carbon and maitain the resulting steel melted. In 1867 Siemens revived the Reamur steelmaking process applying the principle of heat regeneration, using spent hot gases to preheat the air to the open hearth furnace, to obtain steel from pig, scrap and ore. In 1879 Gilchrist Thomas deviced the process to produce steel from poor minerals developping the basic lining to absorb the deterious phophorus.

1857: Albrecht von Köliker discovered "sarcosomes" (mitochondria) in muscle cells. Claude Bernard demonstrated the formation of glycogen by the liver. Louis Pasteur demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation is carriedout by bacteria. Charles Baudelaire published "Les fleurs du mal".

1858: Stanislas Cannizzaro determined the atomic weights based on previous findings of Dalton, Gay-Lussac, and Avogadro.

1858: Louis Pasteur noted that Penicillium molds fermented only dextrotartaric acid and not the levo isomer. Rudolph Virchaw applied the cell theory to problems of pathology an disease and set forth the illuminating principle that the outward symptoms of disease are merely reflections of impairment at the level od cellular organization. He also advanced the notion that all cells arise from pre-existing cells.  Charles Darwin announces the Natural Selection Theory ---that members of a population who are better adapted to the environment survive and pass on their treats. Friederich August Kekulé von Stradonitz proposes that carbon atoms can form chains. Second Opium War (1858-1860) between England and China

1859: Charles Darwin publishes "The Origin of Species". Alfred Kolbe sintesized salicylic acid.

1859: The first commercially successful U.S. Oil Well is drilled by E. L. Drake near Titusville, Pennsylvania. This 70 foot well launches the petroleum industry. Hittorf and Plucker dicover cathode rays. Bunsen and Kirchhoff measurement of spectral line frequencies. Kirchhoff law on black body radiation. In 1961 they found elements caesium and rubidium in spectra.

1860: First International Congress of Chemistry in Karlsruhe, where  Canizzaro presented new methods determine atomic weights; Oxygen weight of 16 was adopted as measuring basis of element weights, thus setting Hydrogen, the lightest known element, weight to aproximately 1. Louis Pasteur germ theory of disease revolutionizes concepts of Medicine and public health. Berhelot organic chemistry based on synthesis

1860: Ettienne Lenoir constructed the first practical combustion engine.

1861: Civil War in the United States (1861-1865). Founding of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

1862: Julius von Sachs produced experimental evidence that starch was a product of photosynthesis. Andreas Angstrom observed hydrogen in the sun. Bismark becomes Prime Minister of Prussia.

1863: Ernest Solvay perfects his method for producing sodium bicarbonate. William Huggins stellar spectra indicate that stars are made of same elements as found on Earth. Reich and Richter found element indium from spectra.

1863: The Red Cross is founded. The British government passes the "Alkali Works Act" in an attempt to control environmental emissions.

1864: Ernst Haekel outlines the essential elements of modern zoological clasification. Louis Pasteur demolition of the doctrine of spontaneous generation. Ernst Seyler performed the first crystallization of a protein: hemoglobin. James Clerk Maxwell equations of electrmagnetic wave propagation.

1865: The U.S. Civil War (1861-65) ends.

1865: Friederich August Kekulé devices a ring model for the structural formula of benzene. Gregor Mendel published theories on heredity.  Louis Pasteur Patents on the preservation of wine.The first U.S. petroleum pipeline is built from an oil field near Titusville, Pennsylvania to a nearby railroad. Rudolf Clausius introduced the term entropy. Richard Wagner opera "Tristan und Isolde". Lewis Carrol "Alice in Wonderland". Leo Tolstoi "War and Peace"

1866: Dynamite is patented by Alfred Nobel. Dynamoelectric principle is presented by W. Siemens.

1866: Gregor Mendel published his investigations on plant hybrids and the inheritance of "factors". Ernst Heinrich Haekel hypothesizes that the nuclei of a cell transmits its hereditary information. He was the first using the term "ecology" to describe the study of living organisms and their interactions with other organisms and with their environment.

1866: Celluloid is invented by a British entrepreneur named Alexander Parkes ("The Father of Plastics")

1867: James Clerck Maxwell statistical physics and thermal equilibrium. Henry Recoe isolation of element vanadium. The Typewriter is invented."Das Kapital" (Volume 1) by Karl Marx. Russia sells Alaska to U.S.

1868: Charles Darwin elaborated the theory of pangenesis. Jean Baptiste Boussingnault pointed out that plants require oxygen for the photosynthesis. Pierre-Jules Janssen observed lines of helium in sun's spectrum. Helium was then recognized and named by Lockyer and Crookes. Doppler shifts in stellar spectra was observed by William Huggins.

1869: Dmitri Mendelejeff published a chemical elements arrangement table. This is the basis of the well known periodic table. Mendelejeff then predicted new elements such as scandium, germanium, technetium, francium and gallium. In 1972 during a visit to the Titusville oil field he warns that petroleum is too valuable to be burned.

1869: Opening of the Suez Canal. The Transcontinental Railroad is completed as the Golden Spike is driven in at Promontory Point, Utah.

1869: Celluloid was produced by John Hyatt in Albany, New York. The breakthrough came about because of a search for an ivory substitute that could be used to make billiard balls. Celluloid was the first synthetic plastic to receive wide commercial use.

1870: Justus von Liebeg proposed that all ferments were chemical reactions rather than vital impulses.

1871: Johan Friederich Miescher isolated a substance which he called "nuclein" from the nuclei of white blood cells. This substance came to be known as nucleic acid. Ludwig Boltzmann classsical explanation of Dulong-Petit specific heats.

1871: Insurrection in the Paris Commune. Bismark established the German Empire (Reich) unifying Germany.

1872: Carl Friederich Wilhem Ludwig and Eduard Pfünger studied the gas exchange process in the blood and showed that oxidation occurs in the tissues rather than in the blood. Lodygin, produced the first incandescent lamps in Russia.

1873: James Clerk Maxwell electromagnetic nature of light and prediction of radio waves. Johannes van der Walls intermolecilar forces in fluids. Anton Schneider oberved and described the behaviour of nuclear filaments (chromosomes) during cell division, providing the first accurate description of the process of mitosis in animal cells. London fog kills 1,150 people; similar incidents repeated in the following 20 years.

1874: German graduate student Othmar Zeider discovers the chemical formula for DDT. George Stoney esstimated the unit of charge and named it the electron. Kirchoff, G.R.: Spectral analysis of elements. Braun, K. F.: Rectifying effect of semiconductors

1875: Oscar Hertwig showed taht the head of the spermatozoon becomes a pronucleus and combines with the female pronucleus as the zygote nucleus, thus establishing the concept that fertilization is the conjugation of two cells. Paul-Emile Lecoq element gallium.

1876: Alexander Graham Bell patented the Telephone. Nikolaus August Otto designed the first four stroke piston engine.

1876: The American Chemical Society (ACS) is formed. Robert Koch showed that anthrax was caused by a specific organism.

1877: Ludwig Boltzmann derived the Boltzmann's probability equation for entropy. Wilhelm Friederich Kühne proposed the term enzyme (meaning "in yeast") and distinguished enzymes from the micro-organisms that produce them. Cailletet and Pictet produced liquid oxygen and nitrogen. Thomas Edison patented the phonograph.

1878: Josiah Willard Gibbs developed the theory of Chemical Thermodynamics introducing fundamental equations and relations to calculate multyphase equilibrium, the phase rule, and the free energy concept. His work remained unknown until 1883, when Wilhelm Ostwald discovered his work and translated it to German.

1879: Walther Flemming described and named "chromaton", "mitosis" and "spireme", made the first accurate counts of chromosome numbers and figured the longitudinal splitting of chromosomes. Joseph Stefan radiation law. Lars Fredrik Nilson element scandium. William Crookes suggested that cathode rays may be negatively charged particles. Albert Michelson improved measurements for the speed of light.

1879: First electric train developed by W. von Siemens is presented at the international exposition in Berlin. Thomas Edison and Sir Joseph Swan independently devise the first practical electric lights.

1880: Andrew Carnage develops his first, large, steel furnace. George Davis proposes a "Society of Chemical Engineers" in England. Sydney Ringer investigated the influence of inorganic ions on heart contraction, making possible an analysis of heart metabolism and the replacement of body fluids and the perfusion of isolated tissues using the Ringer's solution. J-M. Charcot findings concerning deseases of the central nervous system. A. Rodin sculpure "The Thinker"

1881: Louis Pasteur gave a public demonstration of the effectiveness of his anthrax vaccine.

1882: Thomas Edison builds the first hydroelectric power plant in Appleton, Wisconsin. Robert Koch discovers the rod-like tubercle bacillus responsible for tuberculosis (TB).

1883: Osborne Reynolds published his paper on the Reynolds' Number, a dimensionless quantity which characterizes laminar and turbulent flow by relating kinetic (or inertial) forces to viscous forces within a fluid. Camillo Golgi and Santiago Ramon y Cajal developed and refined the silver nitrate technique to give a completely new picture of the intricate relationships between neurons. Max Rubner discovered that metabolic rate is proportional to the surface of the body. Georg Fitzgerald theory on radio transmission. G. Daimler patents the gasoline combustion engine. Friederich Nietzsche publishes "Thus Spoke Zarathustra".

1884:Ludwig Boltzmann derivation of Stefan law for black bodies.  J.H. Van't Hoff develops on Chemical Equilibrium. Svante Arrhenius and Friederich Ostwald independently defined acids as substances which release hydrogen ions when disolved in water. Christian Joachim Gram  invented his satining method for classification of bacteria. Elie Metchnikoff  proposed a cellular theory of inmunity.  The Solvay process is transferred to the United States and the Solvay Process Co. begins making soda ash in Syracuse. Viscose Rayon is invented by the French chemist Hilaire Chardonnet. The World's first Skyscraper begins to be erected in Chicago.

1885: The gasoline automobile is developed by Karl Benz and Gottlieb Daimler. Before this, gasoline was an unwanted fraction of petroleum which caused many house fires because of its tendency to explode when placed in Kerosene lamps. Louis Pasteur treated Joseph Meister for rabies. Emil Hansen instituted pure culture starters in the fermentation of beer. Johann Balmer empirical formula for hydrogen spectral lines.

1886: The first modern Oil Tanker, the Gluckauf, was built for Germany by England. Ernst Abbe of the Zeiss Optical Works, developed the apochromatic microscope lens. Victor Alexander Haden Horsley induced cretinism and myxoedema in monkeys by experimentaly removing the thyroid gland. Henri Moissan issolated fluorine. Clemens Winkler isolated element germanium. Fedor Dostojevski publishes "Crime and Punishment".

1887: Svante Arrhenius Ionic Theory of Electrolytes. August Weismann elaborated a theory of chromosome behavior during cell division and fertilization predicting the occurrence of meiosis. Oscar Minkowski associated acromegaly with a hyperfunctional pituitary gland. Emil Fischer elaborated the structural patterns of proteins. Heinrich Hertz transmission, reception and reflection of radio waves. Michelson and Morley fine structure of hydrogen spectrum. Hertz and Hallwacks photoelectric effect. Woldemar Voigt anticipated Lorentz transform to derive Doppler shift. Claude Debussy "Le Printemps"

1888: George Davis provides the blueprint for a new profession as he presents a series of 12 lectures on Chemical Engineering at the Manchester, England. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology begins "Course X" (ten), the first four year Chemical Engineering program in the United States. Pasteur Institute founding in Paris. Heinrich Hertz performed the first experiments with a receptor to "hear" herzian radio waves.

1889: Francis Galton formulated the law of ancestral inheritance, a statistical description of the relative contribution to heredity made by ancestors. Joseph von Mering and Oscar Minkowski duplicated the symptoms of diabetes in the dog by experimental excision of the pancreas. Construction of Eiffel Tower in Paris. J.B. Dunlop patent for bicycle tires.

1890: Theodor Boveri and Jean Louis Guignard established the numerical equality of paternal and maternal chromosomes at fertilization. Emil Adolf von Behring discovered antibodies and antitetanus serum.

1891: Heinrich Wilhelm Weldiger proposed the neuron theory of the nervous system. Marie Eugene Dubois discovered Java man and named it Pithecanthropus Erectus, now known as Homo erectus. T.A. Edison motion picture camera. Construction of the trans-Siberian railroad starts.

1892: Diesel develops his internal combustion engine. G. Daimler first petrol-driven car. Dmitri Iosifochich Ivanovski discovered a disease-causing agent smaller than bacteria: viruses.

1893: Sorel published "La rectification de l'alcool" were he developed and applied the mathematical theory of the rectifying column for binary mixtures. William Ostwald proved that enzymes are catalysts. The John Hopkins Medical School is founded.

1894: Karl Pearson published the first of a series of contributions to the mathematical theory of evolutioin and methods for analyzing statistical frequency distribution. Emil Fischer conducted investigations which form the basis of the notion of enzyme specificity. William Maddock Bayliss and Henry Sterling studied the electric currents in mamalian heart. George Oliver and Eduard Albert Sharpey-Schaeffer first demonstrated the action of a specific hormone; the effect of an extract of adrenal gland on blood vessels and muscle contraction, upon injection in normal animals it produced a striking elevation of blood pressure. Rayleigh and Ramsey identified element argon. Heinrich Herz found that radio waves travel at speed of light and can be refracted and polarised.

1895: The German physicist Wilhelm Konrad Roentgen discovered a new kind of radiation working with the vacuum tube discharge; This radiation was called X-Rays. Linde develops his process for liquefying air. Jean Baptiste Perrin proved that cathode rays are negative particles.Hendrick Lorentz first form of Lorentz transformation and definition of electrmagnetic force on a charged particle. Lumière brothers present the cinematograph.

1896: Antoine Henri Becquerel found natural radioactivity in uranium ore. G. Puccini opera "La Boheme"

1897: Badische produces synthetic Indigo on a commercial scale in Germany. Friedrich Paschen verification of Wien's black body law at long wavelenghts. Kaufman and J.J. Thomson measurement of electron charge to mass ratio by deflection of cathode rays. Ronald Ross discovers the malaria parasite in the Anopheles mosquito. H. Rostand "Cyrano de Bergerac. A. Chekhov "Uncle Vanya". J. Renoir "Baigneuse endormie"

1898: The U.S. defeats Spain in the Spanish-American War.

1898: Guglielmo Marconi transmission of signal across the English channel. James Devar obtains liquid hydrogen. Pierre and Marie Curie separation of radioactive elements radium and polonium. Ramsey and Travers isolated neon, krypton and xenon. Ernest Rutherford alpha and beta radiation.  Emile Zola "J'accuse"

1899: Max Planck introduced the concept that light and all other kinds of electromagnetic radiation, which were considered as continuous trains of waves, actually consist of individual energy packages with well defined amounts of energy quanta, proportional to its vibration frequency.

1899: Bayer Aspirin goes on sale to the public.

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1900: Lord Rayleigh, statistical derivation of short wavelength black body law. Ernest Rutherford, first determination of a radioactive half-life. Antoine Henri Becquerel, suggests that beta rays are electrons. Lummer, Pringsheim, Rubens, Kurlbaum, failure of Wien's black body law at short wavelengths. Max Planck, light quanta in black body radiation, Planck's black body law and Planck's constant.Paul Villard, gamma rays. Friedrich Dorn, element 86, radon. Pyotr Lebedev, radiation pressure measured. John Herreshoff, of the Nichols Chemical Co., develops the first U.S. contact method for sulfuric acid production.

1900: First sound movie. First metro line in Paris. Automobile is welcomed as bringing relief from pollution. New York City, with 120,000 horses, scrapes up 2.4 million pounds of manure every day. Sigmund Freud "Die Traumdeutung" (the interpretation of dreams).

1901: Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff (Netherlands, 1852-1911) Discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and of the osmotic pressure in solutions

Wilhelm K. Roentgen (1845-1923, German) Discovery of X rays

1901 Emil A. von Behring (1854-1917, German) For his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria.

1901: Max Planck, determination of Planck's constant, Boltzmann's constant, Avogadro's number and the charge on electron. Guglielmo Marconi transmission of Morse signals across the Atlantic. J.P. Morgan organizes the U.S. Steel Corporation. George Davis publishes a "Handbook of Chemical Engineering." Oil Drilling begins in Persia. K. Landsteiner discovery of the blood groups.

1902: Philipp Lenard, intensity law in photoelectric effect
Rutherford and Soddy, theory of transmutation by radiation and first use of the term "atomic energy".

1902: Emil H. Fischer (Germany, 1852- 1919) Synthetic studies in the area of sugar and purine groups

Hendrik A. Lorentz (1853-1928) Dutch and Pieter Zeeman (1865-1943) Dutch, Influence of magnetism on radiation phenomena

Sir Ronald Ross (1857-1932, British) For his work on malaria.

1903: Ernest Rutherford, alpha particles have a positive charge. Curie and Laborde, radioactive energy released by radium is large. Johannes Stark, the power of the sun may be due to genesis of chemical elements. Philipp Lenard, model of atom as two separated opposite charges. W. Einthoven first electrocardiograph. Orville & Wilbur Wright fly 59 seconds at 225 m height the first powered aircraft at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.The Ford Motor Company is founded.

1903: Svante A. Arrhenius (Sweden, 1859- 1927) Theory of electrolytic dissociation

Antoine H. Becquerel (1852-1908, French), Pierre Curie (1859-1906, French),  Marie Sklodowska Curie (1867 -1934, Poland/France), Discovery of radioactivity in uranium. Work on radioactivity based on Becquerel's discovery

Niels Ryberg Finsen (1860-1904, Danish) In recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light rays.

1903: Arthur Noyes, a prominent MIT professor, established a Research Laboratory of Physical Chemistry.

1904: Albert Einstein, energy-frequency relation of light quanta. Hendrik Lorentz, the completed Lorentz transformations. Hantaro Nagaoka, planetary model of the atom. Ambrose Flemming, diode valve and rectifier. Henri Poincare, conjectured light speed as physical limit. Ernest Rutherford, age of Earth by radioactvity dating.

1904: Sir William Ramsay (United Kingdom, 1852-1916) Discovery of the indifferent gaseous elements in air (noble gases)

John Strutt (Lord Rayleigh) (1842-1919, British), Studies on density of gases; discovery (with Sir William Ramsay) of argon.

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936, Russian) In recognition of his work on the physiology of disgestion.

1905: Adolf von Baeyer (Germany, 1835 - 1917) Organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds

Philipp Lenard (1862-1947) Hungarian, Work on cathode rays

Robert Koch (1843-1910, German) For his investigations and discoveries in regard to tuberculosis.

1905: Einstein has his "miracle year" as he formulates the Special Theory of Relativity, establishes the Law of Mass-Energy Equivalence, creates the Brownian Theory of Motion, and formulates the Photon Theory of Light. Paul Langevin, atomic theory of paramagnetism. Percival Lowell, postulates a ninth planet beyond Neptune. Bragg and Kleeman, alpha-particles have discrete energies. Hermann Nernst, third law of thermodynamics. Pablo Picasso "Pink period".

1906: Henri Moissan (France, 1852 - 1907) Investigation and isolation of the element fluorine.

Sir Joseph J. Thomson (1856-1940, British), Conduction of electricity through gases.

Camillo Golgi (1844-1926) Italian, Santiago Ramon y Cajal (1852-1934) Spanish, In recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system.

1906: Albert Einstein, quantum explanation of specific heat laws for solids. Joseph Thomson, Thomson scattering of X-ray photons and number of electrons in an atom. Ernest Rutherford, alpha particles scatter in air. Lee de Forest, triode valve. Ludwig Boltzman dies. He has the equation: "S=k ln(W)" carved on his tombstone in Vienna. Today it is known as the Boltzman Principle, and provides a statistical relationship between entropy (S) and the number of ways a system can be configured (W). Fredrerick Hopkins discovers vitamins. The San Francisco Earthquake kills hundreds and destroys the city.

1907: Albert Einstein, equivalence principle and gravitational redshift. Urbain and von Welsbach, element 71, lutetium

1907: Eduard Buchner (Germany, 1860 - 1917) Biochemical studies, discovery of fermentation without cells

Albert A. Michelson (1852-1931) American, Optical precision instruments and studies made with them

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran (1845-1922, French) In recognition of his work regarding the role played by protozoa in causing diseases.

1908: Hermann Minkowski, geometric unification of space and time. Hans Geiger, Geiger counter for detecting radioactivity. Heike Onnes, liquid helium. Geiger, Royds, Rutherford, identify alpha particles as helium nuclei. Svante Arrhenius argues that the greenhouse effect from coal and petroleum use is warming the globe. The General Motors Co. is founded. The first "Model T" rolls of the Ford assembly line.

1908: Sir Ernest Rutherford (United Kingdom, 1871- 1937) Decay of the elements, chemistry of radioactive substances

Gabriel Lippmann (1845-1921, French), Color photography based on interference

Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915, German) and Elie Metchinikoff (1845-1916, French) In recognition of work on immunity.

1908: The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) is founded. Cellophane is discovered by a Swiss chemist named Jacques Brandenberger.Dr. Leo Baekeland ("The Father of the Plastics Industry") discovers Bakelite in his laboratory in Yonkers, N.Y.

1909: Albert Einstein, particle-wave duality of photons. Johannes Stark, momentum of photons. Geiger and Marsden, anomolous scattering of alpha particles on gold foil. Robert Millikan, measured the charge on the electron.

1909: Wilhelm Ostwald (Germany, 1853 - 1932) Catalysis, chemical equilibria and reaction rates

Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937) Italian, Karl F. Braun (1850-1918) German, development of wireless telegraphy.

Emil Theodor Kocher (1841-1917, Swiss) For his work on the physiology, pathology, and surgery of the thyroid gland.

1909: Louis Bleriot overflighted the channel between France-England. R.E. Peary arrived at the North Pole,

1910: Otto Wallach (Germany, 1847 - 1931) Alicyclic compounds

Johannes D. van der Waals (1837-1923) Dutch, Laws and formulas for liquids and gases

Albrecht Kossel (1853-1927,  German) In recognition of the contributions to the chemistyr of the cell made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances.

1910: Bakelite production begins at the General Bakelite Company. The plastic finds widespread use in electric insulation, electric plugs and sockets, clock bases, iron handles, and jewelry. Synthetic Ammonia is first produced by the Haber Process in Ludwigshafen, Germany. A U.S. Rayon plant is constructed by the American Viscose Co.

1910: A.N. Whitehead and B. Russel published "Principia Mathematica". I. Stravinsky "The Bird of Fire".

1911: Marie Curie (France, Poland, 1867- 1934) Discovery of radium and polonium

Wilhelm Wien (1864-1928) German, Discoveries in blackbody radiation

Allvar Gullstrand (1862-1930, Swedish) For his work on the dioptrics of the eye.

1911: Sir Ernest Rutherford proposes his theory concerning the atomic nucleus. Victor Hess, high altitude radiation from space. Heike Kammerlingh-Onnes, superconductivity. Roald Amudsen at the South Pole. W. Kandinsky "Composition". M. Gorki "Mother".

1912: Victor Grignard (France, 1871- 1935) Grignard's reagent

Paul Sabatier (France, 1854 - 1941) Hydrogenation of organic compounds in the presence of finely divided metals

Nils G. Dalen (1869-1937, Swedish), Automatic gas lighting.

Alexis Carrel (1873-1944,  French) In recognition of his works on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs.

1912: The Titanic sinks, killing 1513 people, after striking an iceberg. Bureau of Mines begins first smoke control study. Joseph Thomson, mass spectrometry and separation of isotopes. Henrietta Leavitt, period to luminosity relationship for Cepheid variable stars
Robert Millikan, measurement of Planck's constant. Peter Debye, derivation of specific heat laws to low temperatures. Charles Wilson's cloud chamber allows the detection of protons and electrons. Max Von Laue, X-rays are explained as electromagnetic radiation by diffraction. Albert Einstein, curvature of space-time. Vesto Melvin Slipher, observes blue-shift of andromeda galaxy
Gustav Mie, non-linear field theories. A.L. Wegener Theory of continental drift. T. Mann "Der Tod in Venedig" (Death in Venice).

1913: Alfred Werner (Switzerland, 1866 - 1919) Bonding relations of atoms in molecules (inorganic chemistry)

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853-1926) Dutch, Method of liquefying helium

Charles Richet (1853-1935, French) In recognition of his work on anaphylaxis.

1913: The Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) begins the thermal cracking of petroleum in "Burton Stills".   Henry Ford started the "production in series" of his Model Ford-T automobile. Niels Bohr proposes his "solar system" model of the atom and a quantum thjeory of atomic orbits, radioactivity becomes a nuclear property. Jean-Baptiste Perrin, theory of size of atoms and molecules. Fajans and Gohring, element 91, protactinium. Bragg and Bragg, X-ray diffraction and crystal structure. Hans Geiger, relation of atomic number to nuclear charge. Johannes Stark, splitting of hydrogen spectral lines in electric field. Frederick Soddy, the term "isotope". Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis. I. Pavlov work on conditioned relexes.

I. Stravinsky "Rite of Spring". Marcel Proust "A la recherche du temps perdu". George B. Shaw "Pygmalion".

1914: Theodore W. Richards (USA, 1868- 1928) Determination of atomic weights

Max von Laue (1879-1960, German), Diffraction of X rays by crystals.

Robert Barany (1876-1936, Austrian) For his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus.

1914: Robert Goddard begins his rocketry experiments. James Chadwick, primary beta spectrum is continuous and shows an energy anomaly. Harry Moseley, used X-rays to confirm the correspondence between electric charge of nucleus and atomic . Ejnar Hertzsprung, measured distance to Large Magellanic Cloud using Cepheid variable stars. Rutherford, da Costa Andrade, gamma rays identified as hard photons.

1914: World War I begins in Europe. Opening of the Panama Canal.

1915: Richard Willstätter (Germany, 1872 - 1942) Investigation of plant pigments, particularly of chlorophyll

Sir William H. Bragg (1862-1942, English), Sir William L. Bragg (1890-1971, English), Work on crystal structure, using X-ray spectrometer they developed.

1915: Albert Einstein, general relativity. Prediction of light bending and explanation for perihelion shift of mercury. David Hilbert, action principle for gravitational field equations.

1915: The Unit Operations concept is articulated by Arthur Little. Toxic gas (Chlorine Gas) is used in World War I at the battle of Ypres. Fritz Haber, primarily known for his ammonia production process, supervises these deadly "experiments". Later, his wife pleads with him to stop his work concerning poison gases and after he refuses she commits suicide. Ford Motor Co. develops a farm tractor. The Corning Glass Works begins marketing Pyrex glass.

1916: Robert Millikan, verification of energy law in photoelectric effect. Albert Einstein "General Theory of Relativity", prediction of gravitational waves, conservation of energy-momentum in general relativity. Karl Schwarzschild, singular static solution of gravitational field equations which describes a minimal black hole. Arnold Sommerfeld, Further atomic quantum numbers and fine structure of spectra, fine structure constant.

William Walker and Warren K. Lewis, two prominent MIT professors, established a School of Chemical Engineering Practice.

1917: Charles G. Barkla (1877-1944) English, Discovery of X-ray radiation of elements.

1917: Harlow Shapley, estimates the diameter of the galaxy as 100000 parsecs. Albert Einstein, introduction of the cosmological constant and a steady state model of the universe. Vesto Melvin Slipher, observes that most galaxies have red-shifts. Albert Einstein, theory of stimulated emission and loss of determinism. Willem de Sitter, describes a model of a static universe with no matter. Arthur Eddington, gravitational energy is insufficient to account for the energy output of stars. Rutherford, Marsden, artificial transmutation, hydrogen and oxygen from nitrogen. A full-sized plant to produce nitric acid from ammonia is built by the Chemical Construction Co.

1917: WW1 Russia capitulates. The U.S. enters World War I. Russian revolution (Lenin).

1918: Fritz Haber (Germany, 1868 - 1934) Synthesis of ammonia from its elements.

Max Planck (1858-1947, German), Quantum theory.

1918: Harlow Shapley, determined the size and shape of our galaxy. Reissner and Nordstrom, solution of Einstein's equations which describe a charged black hole. Emmy Noether, The mathematical relationships between symmetry and conservation laws in classical physics. Francis Aston, mass spectrometer.

1918: Acetone is produced for the British in Terre Haute, Indiana. Epidemic of Spanish flu causes 40 million deaths in Europe.

1919: Johannes Stark (1874-1957, German), Discovery that spectral lines are distorted in an electrical field; Stark effect

Jules Bordet (1870-1961, Belgian) For his discoveries in regard to immunity.

1919: Ernest Rutherford, existence of the proton in nucleus. Oliver Lodge, prediction of gravitational lensing. Francis Aston, hydrogen fusion to helium will release a lot of energy. Crommelin, Eddington, verification of Einstein's prediction of starlight deflection during an eclipse. Arthur Eddington, predicts the size of red gaints using stellar models. Gandi non-obedience campaign against British colonialism. The League of Nations is founded.

1920: Walther H. Nernst (Germany, 1864- 1941) Studies on thermodynamics

Charles E. Guillaume (1861-1938, French), Work on nickel-steel alloys; invented alloy invar.

August Koch (1874-1949, Danish) For his discovery of the regulation of the motor mechanism of capillaries.

1920's: Cellulose acetate, acrylics (Lucite & Plexiglas), and polystyrene can finally be produced in large quantities. The 18th Amendment, prohibiting the sale of alcoholic beverages, goes into effect. Many cases of blindness and death result as people mistake wood alcohol (methanol) for ethanol. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology starts an independent Department of Chemical Engineering. The Standard Oil Co. (New Jersey) produces Isopropyl Alcohol, the first commercial petrochemical. Ponchon and Savarit developed and presented the famous Enthalpy-Concentration diagram useful to solve distillations calculations.

Ernest Rutherford, prediction of neutron. Anderson, Michelson, Pease, size of star Betelgeuse using stellar interferometry. Harkins, Eddington, Fusion of hydrogen could be the energy source of stars. Shapley and Curtis, The Great Debate over the scale and structure of the universe.

1921: Frederick Soddy (United Kingdom, 1877 - 1956) Chemistry of radioactive substances, occurrence and nature of the isotopes

Albert Einstein (1879-1955, German/American), Theory of relativity; photoelectric effect.

1921: A 4,500 metric ton stockpile of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfated exploded at a chemical plant in Oppau, Germany. The blast and subsequent fire killed 600, injured 1500, and left 7000 people homeless. General Motors researchers discover tetraethyl lead as an anti-knock gasoline additive. This used commercially 14 month later.

Theodor Kaluza, unification of electromagnetics and gravity by introducing an extra dimension. Bieler and Chadwick, evidence for a strong nuclear interaction. Stern and Gerlach, measurement of atomic magnetic moments. Charles Bury, electronic structure of elements from their chemistry. Rorschach-test Psychodiagnostics.

1922: Francis W. Aston (United Kingdom, 1877 - 1945) Discovery of a large number of isotopes, mass spectrograph

Niels Bohr (1885-1962, Danish), Studies in atomic structure and radiations.

Archibald Vivian Hill (1886-  , British), Otto Meyerhof (1884-1951, German) For his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in muscle.

1922: Thomas Midgley uses Tetraethyl lead as an antiknock additive in gasoline. Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin develop a tuberculosis vaccine, BCG. The first human diabetes patient is injected with insulin, mass production of the "wonder drug" soon follows.   Clark S. Robinson published Elements of Fractional Distillation; later editions were undertaken by Edwin R. Guilliland. Cornelius Lanczos, transformation of De Sitter universe to an expanding form. Alexsandr Friedmann, a model of an expanding - oscillating universe with matter included.

1922: Egypt becomes independent. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) established.

J. Joyce "Ulysses". T.S. Eliot "The Wasteland".

1923: Fritz Pregl (Austria, 1869 - 1930) Microanalysis of organic compounds

Robert A. Millikan (1868-1953, American), Measurement of electron; photoelectric phenomena.

Frederick Grant Banting (1891-1941, Canadian), John James Richard Macleod (1876-1935, Scottish) For their discovery of insulin.

1923: Louis de Broglie demonstrated that radiation has corpuscular properties, and that matter particles such as electrons present ondulatory wave characteristics. Compton and Debye, theory of Compton effect. Arthur Compton, verification of Compton effect confirms photon as particle. Davisson and Kunsman, electron diffraction. Coster and von Hevesy, element 72, hafnium. Herman Weyl, De Sitter universe would predict a linear relation between distance and red-shift.

1924: Karl M.G. Siegbahn (1886-1978, Swedish), Work in X-ray spectroscopy.

Willem Einthoven (1860-1927, Dutch) For his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram.

1924: Edwin Hubble, measured the distance to other galaxies using Cepheid variables proving that they lie outside our own. Edward Appleton, ionosphere. Satyendra Bose, derivation of Planck's law. Bose and Einstein, statistics of photons and Bose-Einstein condensate. Albert Einstein, statistical physics of quantum boson molecular gas. Wolfgang Pauli, explanation of Zeeman effect and two-valuedness of electron state. Enuntiation of the exclusion principle. Ludwik Siberstein, claims a redshift law for nebulae.

1924: Five refinery workers die violently insane at Standard Oil Refinery making tetraethyl lead in unsafe conditions; News reveal that other seven workers had died also for similar exposure at G.M. and DuPont plants.

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1925: Richard A. Zsigmondy (Germany, Austria, 1865 - 1929) Colloid chemistry (ultramicroscope)

James Franck (1882-1964, American), Gustav Hertz (1887-1975, German), Laws governing impact of electrons on atoms.

1925: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis for indirect coal liquefaction is developed by the German chemists Franz Fischer and Hans Tropsch reacting synthesis gas over an iron or cobalt catalyst at 350 psi and 330° C to produce gasoline, diesel, middle and heavy oils. The Germans built several plant utilizing this technology during WWII to provide 15,000 BPD of military fuels. The AIChE begins accreditation of Chemical Engineering programs. Rubber antioxidants begin to be used. W.L. McCabe and E.W. Thiele published their graphic x-y plot, eversince known as the McCabe-Thiele diagram, to graphically solve distillation calculations.

1925: Walter Elsasser, explanation of electron diffraction as wave property of matter. Vesto Melvin Slipher, red-shifts of galaxies suggest a distance/velocity relationship. Robert Millikan, rediscovery of "cosmic rays" in upper atmosphere. Noddack, Tacke, Berg, element 75, rhenium. Werner Heisenberg, transition amplitude theory of quantum mechanics. Born and Jordan, matrix interpretation of Heisenberg's quantum mechanics. Paul Dirac, q-number theory of general quantum mechanics. Pascual Jordan, second quantisation. Goudsmit and Uhlenbeck, electron spin. Enrico Fermi, statistics of electrons.

1926: Theodor Svedberg (Sweden, 1884 - 1971) Disperse systems (ultracentrifuge).

Jean B. Perrin (1870-1942, French), Work on discontinuity of matter; studies on motion and distribution of particles suspended in liquid.

Johannes Fibiger (1867-1928, Danish) For his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma.

1926: Erwin Shrödinger developed the mathematical theory of the atom, based on Bohr atom model and De Broglie electro wave lenghts, now called "quantum mechanics". Gilbert Lewis, first use of the term photon. Oskar Klein, Kaluza-Klein theory. Wolfgang Pauli, derivation of spectrum of hydrogen atom by matrix methods. Erwin Schroedinger, the particle wave equation, and derivation of spectrum of hydrogen atom using the wave equation. Eckart, Pauli, Schroedinger, equivalence of wave equation and matrix mechanics. Max Born, probability interpretation of wave function. Albert Einstein, "God does not play dice". Paul Dirac, distinction between bosons and fermions, symmetry and anti-symmetry of wave function. Dirac, Jordan, canonical transformation theory for quantum mechanics. Klein, Fock and Gordon, relativistic wave equation for scalar particles. Ralph Fowler, suggests that white dwarf stars are explained by the exclusion principle. Born, Heisenberg, Jordan, model of a quantised field. Wolfgang Pauli, momentum and position cannot be known simultaneously. Werner Heisenberg, the uncertainty principle.First TV broadcast. Du Pont and Commercial Solvents begin synthetic methanol production in the U.S.

1927: Heinrich O. Wieland (Germany, 1877 - 1957) Constitution of bile acids

Arthur H. Compton (1892-1962, American), Charles T.R. Wilson (1869-1959, Scottish), Discovery of Compton effect; shows that electromagnetic radiation behaves like a stream of particles, Wilson cloud chamber for study of ions.

Julius Wagner-Jauregg (1857-1940, Austrian) For his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria innoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica.

1927: Hermann Miller used X-rays to cause artificial gene mutations in Drosophila. Davisson, Germer, Thomson, verification of electron diffraction by a crystal. Jan Oort, observation of galactic rotation and spiral shape of our galaxy. Niels Bohr, principle of complementarity. Paul Dirac, quantisation of electromagnetic field, bosonic creation and anihilation operators, virtual particles, zero point energy. Eugene Wigner, conservation of parity. Friedrich Hund, quantum tunneling. Heitler and London, quantum theory can explain chemical bonding. Fritz London, electromagnetic guage is phase of Schroedinger equation. Georges Lemaitre, models of an expanding universe. Niels Bohr, Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Charles Lindbergh flies across the Atlantic.

1928: Adolf Windaus (Germany, 1876 - 1959) Study of sterols and their relation with vitamins (vitamin D).

Sir Owen W. Richardson (1879-1959, English), Law on emission of electrons.

Charles Nicolle (1866-1936, French) For his work on typhus.

1928: Condon, Gamow, Gurney, alpha emission is due to quantum tunnelling. Paul Dirac, relativistic equation of the spin-half electron. Willem Keeson, phase transition in liquid Helium. Jordan, Pauli, quantum field theory of free fields Rolf Wideroe, first prototype high energy accelerator. Heisenberg, Weyl, group representation theory in quantum mechanics. Hubble observes Doppler effect in galactic radiation.

1929: Hans von Euler-Chelpin (Sweden, Germany, 1873 - 1964), Arthur Harden (United Kingdom, 1861 - 1940) Studies on fermentation of sugars and enzymes.

Prince Louis Victor de Broglie (1892-1987, French), Wave character of electrons.

Christiaan Eijkman (1858-1930, Dutch), Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins (1861-1947, English) For his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins.

1929: quartz crystal clock. Ernest Lawrence, cyclotron. Robert van de Graaff, Van de Graaff generator. Heisenberg, Pauli, interacting quantum field theory and divergences. J. Robert Oppenheimer, divergence of electron self-energy. Paul Dirac, electron sea and hole theory. Edwin Hubble, first measurement of Hubble's constant leading to the conclusion that the Universe is expanding. Bothe, Kolhorster, cosmic rays are charged particles.

1929: Alexander Fleming observes the effect Penicillin has on bacteria. The breakthrough occurred when he returned to his laboratory after a four week vacation. An improperly sealed bacteria culture had been accidentally contaminated by a number of molds and yeasts. One of the molds had killed the bacteria in the culture. The stock-market crash on "Black Thursday" brings ruin to thousands of investors. Stalin collectivizes agriculture, murder of kulaks. Geneva Convention on the treatment of Prisoners of War.

1930: Hans Fischer (Germany, 1881 - 1945) Studies on blood and plant pigments, synthesis of hemin

Sir Chandrasekhara V. Raman (1888-1970, Indian), Work on diffusion of light; Raman effect advanced study of molecular structure.

Karl Landsteiner (1868-1943, American) For his discovery of the human blood groups.

1930: Clyde Tombaugh, Pluto. Becker, Bothe, observed neutral rays later identified as neutrons. Paul Dirac, systematic canonical quantisation. Arthur Eddington, Einstein's static universe is unstable. Hartree and Fock, multi-particle quantum mechanics.

1930's: The Wisconsin duo of Hougen & Watson stress the importance of thermodynamics in Chemical Engineering Education. Michigan's Katz, Brown, White, Kurata, Standing, & Sliepcevich help lay down some foundations in phase equilibria, heat transfer, momentum transfer, and mass transfer. Systematic analysis of chemical reactors begun by; Damkohler in Germany, Van Heerden in Holland, and Danckwerts and Denbigh in England. They explore mass transfer, temperature variations, flow patterns, and multiple steady states. The U.S. suffers through the Great Depression.after the Wall Street Stock exchange collapse.

1931: Friedrich Bergius (Germany, 1884 - 1949), Carl Bosch (Germany, 1874 - 1940) Development of chemical high-pressure processes.

Otto Warburg (1883- , German) For his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme.

1931: Dirac, Oppenheimer, Weyl, prediction of anti-matter. Albert Einstein, discard cosmological constant, oscillating cosmology. Georges Lemaitre, the primeval atom as origin of the universe. Isidor Rabi, principle of population inversion. Wolfgang Pauli, neutrino as explanation for missing energy and spin in weak nuclear decay. Eugene Wigner, symmetry in quantum mechanics. Paul Dirac, magnetic monopoles can explain quantum of charge.

1931: Neoprene synthetic rubber is produced by Du Pont.

1932: Irving Langmuir (USA, 1881 - 1957) Surface chemistry

Werner K. Heisenberg (1901-76, German), Creation of quantum mechanics.

Charles Sherrington (1857-1952, British), Edgar Douglas Adrian (1889- , British) For their discoveries regarding the function of the neurons.

1932: Raman and Bhagavantam, Verification that photon is spin one. Einstein, De Sitter, Flat expanding cosmology. James Chadwick, identified the neutron. Knoll and Ruska, electron microscope. Carl Anderson, positron from cosmic rays. Cockroft and Walton, linear proton accelerators to 700 keV and verification of mass/energy equivalence. Karl Jansky, first radio astronomy. Dmitri Iwanenko, Neutron as a constituent of nucleus. Richard Tolman, thermodynamics of oscillating cyclic universe. Vladimir Fock, Fock space. Urey, Brickwedde, Murphy, Washburn, deuterium. Werner Heisenberg, Nucleus is composed of protons and neutrons. Lev Davidovich Landau, proposed existence of neutron stars. Lawrence and Livingstone build the first cyclotron.

Aldous Huxley "The Brave New World".

1933 Erwin Schrodinger (1887-1961, Austrian), Paul A.M. Dirac (1902-84, English), New forms of atomic theory.

Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945, American) For his discoveries concerning the function of the chromosome in the transmission of heredity.

1933: Paul Ehrenfest, theory of second order phase transitions. Blackett and Occhialini, electron-positron creation and annihilation. Esterman, Frisch and Stern, measurement of proton magnetic moment. Baade and Zwicky, collapse of a white dwarf may set off a supernova and leave a neutron star. Fritz Zwicky, dark matter in galactic clusters. Arthur Milne, cosmological principle of large scale homogeneity. Harlow Shapley, observation of structure in galaxy distribution.

1933: First edition published of Heat Transmission by William H. McAdams. The Imperial Chemical Industries in England discover Polyethylene. Du Pont begins production of Rayon tire cord fabrics. Adolf Hitler comes to power in Germany.

1934: Harold C. Urey (USA, 1893-1981) Discovery of heavy hydrogen (deuterium).

George Hoyt Whipple (1878-  , American), George Richards Minot (1885-1950, American), William Parry Murphy (1892- , American) For their discoveries concerning liver therapy against anemias.

1934: Pavel Cherenkov, Cherenkov electromagnetic radiation. Chadwick and Goldhaber, precise measurement of neutron mass. Chadwick and Goldhaber, measurement of nuclear force. Francis Perrin, neutrino is massless. Grote Reber, discrete radio source in Cygnus. Joliot and Curie-Joliot, induced radioactivity. Enrico Fermi, Fermi theory of weak interaction and beta decay. Esterman and Stern, magnetic moment of neutron. Fermi and Hahn, fission observed. Paul Dirac, polarisation of the vacuum and more divergence in QED.

1935: Frédéric Joliot (France, 1900-1958), Irène Joliot-Curie (France, 1897-1956) Syntheses of new radioactive elements (artificial radioactivity)

Sir James Chadwick (1891-1974, English), Discovery of the neutron.

Hans Spemann (1869-1941, German) For his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development.

1935: Yukawa, Stueckelberg, theory of strong nuclear force and the pi-meson. J. Robert Oppenheimer, spin statistics. Enrico Fermi, hypothesis of transuranic elements. Robertson, Walker, most general homogenious isotropic universe. Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen, EPR Paradox of non-locality in quantum mechanics. Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, calculation of mass limit for stellar collapse of a white dwarf star. Erwin Schroedinger, quantum cat paradox. Robert Watson-Watt, radar.

1935: Wallace H. Carothers, of Du Pont, discovers Nylon. G. Domagk discovery of sulphonamides.

1936: Peter J. W. Debye (Germany, Netherlands, 1884-1966) Studies on dipole moments and the diffraction of X rays and electron beams by gases

Victor F. Hess (1883-1964, American), Carl D. Anderson (1905-91, American), Discovery of cosmic rays. Discovery of the positron.

Henry Dale (1875- , British), Otto Loewi (1873-1961, Born German/Naturalized American) For their discoveries relating to the chemical transmission of nerve impulses.

1936: Niels Bohr, compound nucleus. Anderson and Neddermeyer, muon in cosmic rays. Leon Brillouin, theory of wave guides. Breit and Coll, isotopic spin. Alan Turing, computability.

1936: Rohm & Haas begins marketing Methyl Methacrylate plastics (PMMA). The Houdry Process is used in the Catalytic Cracking of Petroleum.

1936: F. Franco and the Spanish Civil War. John Maynard Keynes publishes "General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money". Purges in the Soviet Union.

1937: Sir Walter N. Haworth (United Kingdom, 1883-1950) Studies on carbohydrates and vitamin C. Paul Karrer (Switzerland, 1889-1971) Studies on carotenoids and flavins and vitamins A and B2

Clinton J. Davisson (1881-1958, American), Sir George P. Thomson (1892-1975, English), Diffraction of electrons by crystals.

Albert von Szent-Györgyi (1893- , Hungarian) For his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with especial reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid.

1937: Pyotr Kapitza, superfluidity of helium II, Perrier and Segre, element 37, technetium, first element made artifically. Majorana, symmetric theory of electron and positron. Julian Schwinger, Neutron spin is half. Blau, Wambacher, photographic emulsion as particle detector. Bloch and Nordsieck, operator normal ordering. John Wheeler, S-matrix theory. H.H. Aiken plan for electronic calculator. Hindenburg Zeppelin airship crashes in flames in New York. Pablo Picasso "Guernica"

1937: Polystyrene is offered to consumers in the U.S. by Dow Chemical. It finds uses in radios, clock cases, electrical equipment, and wall tiles.

1938 :Richard Kuhn (Germany, 1900-1967) Studies on carotenoids and vitamins.

Enrico Fermi (1901-1954, American), Discovery of radioactive elements.

Corneille Heymans (1892-  , Belgian) For his discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mecahnisms in the regulation of respiration.

1938: Ruben and Kamen working with oxygen isotope O18 marked demonstrated that the oxygen emitted by plants is the one obtained from water and not from CO2. They discovered later the carbon 14 which permited to followup the initial steps in the photosynthesis reactions. Oppenheimer and Serber, there is an upper mass limit for stability of neutron stars. Bethe, Critchfield, von Weizsacker, stars are powered by nuclear fusion CN-cycle. Isador Rabi, Magnetic Resonance. O. Hahn, L. Meitner and F. Strassman, fission induced with neutrons, split the nucleus of the atom. Oskar Klein, new field equations from higher dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. Fritz Zwicky, clusters of galaxies. Ernest Stueckelberg, suggests baryon number conservation. Hendrick Kramers, mass renormalisation. Frisch and Meitner, theory of uranium fission.

1939: World War II begins in Europe as German troops invade Poland. Hitler signs "non-agression" pact with Stalin. Russian troops invade Finland.

1939: Adolf F. J. Butenandt (Germany, 1903-1995) Studies on sexual hormones, Leopold Ruzicka (Switzerland, 1887-1976) Studies on polymethylenes and higher terpenes.

Ernest O. Lawrence (1901-58, American), Invention of cyclotron.

Gerhard Domagk (1895-1964, German) For his discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil.

1939: Enrico Fermi, Otto Hahn, F. Strassman, Lisa Meitner, and Otto Frish discover Nuclear Fission. Joliot and Curie-Joliot, Szilard, theory of nuclear chain reaction. Oppenheimer and Snyder, a collapsing neutron star will form a black hole. Bohr, Wheeler, Khariton, Zel'dovich ..., theory of U235 fission and chain reaction. Bloch and Alvarez, measurement of the neutron magnetic moment. Rossi, Van Norman, Hilbery, Muon decay. Teller, Szilard, Einstein, warning letter to Roosevelt. Peierls and Frisch, critical mass and theory of A-Bomb. Marguerite Perey, element 87, francium. Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) is founded in France. Nylon used for women's stockings. Sigmund Freud, father of psychoanlysis dies.

1940's: Polyethylene (electrical insulation and food packaging), silicones (lubricants, protective coatings, and high-temperature electronic insulation), and epoxy (a very strong adhesive) are developed. Standard Oil Co. (Indiana) develops Catalytic Reforming to produce higher octane gasoline and create toluene for TNT. Higher octane gasoline helped the American and British fighters outperform their German counterparts. First tire from synthetic rubber produced in U.S. MacMillan, Abelson, element 93, neptunium, first transuranian elements. Corson, MacKenzie, Segre, element 85, astatine synthesised.

1941: MacMillan, Kennedy, Seaborg, Wahl, element 94, plutonium, second transuranian elements. Lev Davidovich Landau, theory of superfluids. Rossi and Hall, Muon decay used to verify relativistic time dilation. Mckellar and Adams, Cosmic cyanogen observed to be at temperature of CBR, but significance not recognised. "Manhatten Project" is founded to develop atomic bomb.

1941: The United States enters World War II, after Japan attack in Pearl Harbor.

1941: Styrene-Butadiene Rubber first produced in the U.S.

1942: Polyester resins introduced.

1942: Enrico Fermi, and a team of scientists, operated the first man-made nuclear reactor under a football field at the University of Chicago. A cadmium control rod was suspended over the pile with a rope. Grote Reber, radio map of the sky.

Albert Camus "The Stranger".

1943: George de Hevesy (Hungary, 1885-1966) Application of isotopes as indicators in the investigation chemical processes

Otto Stern (1888-1969, American), For measuring the magnetic moment of a proton.

1943: Ernest Stueckelberg, renormalisation of QED. Sakata, Inoue, theory of pion decay to muons.

1943: U.S. Government owned synthetic rubber plants help boost war time production. DDT, a powerful pesticide, first produced in the U.S. WWII: Battle of Stalingrad stops German invasion of Soviet Union.

1943: Salvador Dali, oil painting of "The Born of Geopoliticus".

1944: Otto Hahn (Germany, 1879-1968) Discovery of the nuclear fission of atoms

Isidor I. Rabi (1898-1988, American), Resonance method of recording magnetic properties of atomic nuclei.

1944: Teflon, Tetrafluoroethelene resins, marketed by Du Pont.

1944: Selman Waksman discovers streptomycin, the first effective anti-tuberculous drug. Lars Onsager, general theory of phase transitions. Seaborg, James, Morgan, Ghiorso, Thompson, elements 95; americium, 96; curium. Leprince-Ringuet and Lheritier, the K+ found in cosmic rays.WWII: Allied invasion of Normandy, the first ballistic missile V2 used in war by German Wehrmacht. Yalta Conference settles Europe division between the Allies.

1945: Artturi I. Virtanen (Finland, 1895-1973) Discoveries in the area of agricultural and food chemistry, method of preservation of fodder

Wolfgang Pauli (1900-58, Austrian), Exclusion principle of electrons.

1945: World War II Yalta Conference settles the post-war division of Europe. Robert Oppenheimer et al, atomic bomb. U.S. detonate the Atomic Bomb over Hiroshima, and Nagasaki, Japan. United Nations founded.

1945: After World War II, the U.S. broke Germany's enormous I.G. Farben into; BASF, Bayer, and Hoechst. First electronic computer ENIAC

1946: John H. Northrop (USA, 1891-1987), Wendell M. Stanley (USA, 1904-1971) Preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in pure form. James B. Sumner (USA, 1887-1955) Crystallizability of enzymes.

Percy W. Bridgman (1882-1961, American), Discoveries in high-pressure physics.

1946: James Hey Discovery of radio source Cygnus A. George Gamow Cold big bang model. Bloch and Purcell Nuclear magnetic resonance. UNESCO is founded. Iron Curtain separates Eastern and Western Europe as Cold War intensifies.

Jean Paul Sartre "Existentialism and Humanism".

1947: Sir Robert Robinson (United Kingdom, 1886-1975) Studies on alkaloids

Sir Edward Appleton (1892-1965, English), For studies of Earth's ionosphere and discovery of the Appleton layer.

1947: Claude Shannon, information theory. Conversi, Pancini, Piccioni, indication that the muon is not the mediator of the strong force. Hartmut Kallman, scintillation counter. Denis Gabor, theory of holograms. Powell, Occhialini, negative pion found. Willis Lamb, fine structure of hydrogen spectrum, the Lamb shift. Hans Bethe, renormalisation of Lamb shift calculation. Kusch and Folley, measurement of the anomolous magnetic moment of the electron. Hartland Snyder, quantised space-time.

1947: A barge, the Grandcamp, loaded with fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate catches fire and explodes destroying a nearby city and killing 576 in what would later be known as the "Texas City Disaster". The formation of hydrocarbons from synthetic gas by the Fischer-Tropsch Process in USA at the US Bureau of Mines. Los Angeles Air Pollution Control District is formed. The first off shore oil is drilled. Christian Dior and the "New Look". Marshall Plan to rebuild Europe. UN plan for the partitioning of Palestine.

1948: Arne W. K. Tiselius (Sweden, 1902-1971) Analysis by means of electrophoresis and adsorption, discoveries about serum proteins

Patrick M.S. Blackett (1897-1974, English), Cosmic-ray discoveries; improvement of Wilson cloud chamber

1948: Tomonaga, Schwinger, Feynman, renormalisation of QED. Alpher, Bethe and Gamow, explain nucleosynthesis in hot big bang. Alpher and Herman, prediction of cosmic background radiation. Bondi, Gold, Hoyle, steady state theory of the universe. Goldhaber and Goldhaber, experimental proof that beta particles are electrons. Richard Feynman, path integral approach to quantum theory. Bardeen, Brattain, Shockley, semi-conductors and transistors. Snell and Miller, Decay of the neutron. Freeman Dyson, Equivalence of Feynman and Schwinger-Tomonaga QED. Hendrik Casimir, Theory of Casimir force.

1948: A deadly smog settled over the and small steel mill town of Donora, PA. The noxious air killed 19 caused thousands to become ill. Berlin blockade and the begining of the Cold War. Gandhi murdered in India. World Health Organization (WHO) formed.

1949: William F. Giauque (USA, 1895-1982) Contributions to chemical thermodynamics, properties at extremely low temperatures (adiabatic demagnetization)

Hideki Yukawa (1907-81, Japanese), Prediction of existence of the meson.

1949: Leighton, Anderson, Seriff, Muon is spin half. Seaborg, Ghiorso, Thompson, element 97, berkelium. Haxel, Jensen, Mayer, Suess, nuclear shell model. Fred Hoyle, first use of the term "big bang".

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) is formed. Mao Zedong comes to power in China.

George Orwell "Nineteen Eighty-Four"

TOP return

1950: Kurt Alder (Germany, 1902-1958)

Otto P. H. Diels (Germany, 1876-1954) Development of the diene synthesis

Cecil F. Powell (1903-69) English, Meson discoveries; method of photographing nuclear processes.

1950: Paul Dirac, first suggestion of string theory. Seaborg, Ghiorso, Street, Thompson, element 98, californium. Jan Oort, theory of comet origins. Bjorklund, Crandall, Moyer, York, Neutral pion. Albert Einstein, Einstein's failed unified theory.

1950's: Television enters American homes.

1950: The Korean War begins.

1950's & 1960's: Minnesota's Mathematical Marvel of Amundson & Aris stress the importance of mathematical modeling in Chemical Reactor Engineering. Their work helps encourage greater mathematical competence in Chemical Engineering Education. Wisconsin's Triumvirate of Bird, Stuart, & Lightfoot reveal the unifying concepts of mass, momentum, and energy transport. Their textbook, "Transport Phenomena" continues to be a phenomenon in Chemical Engineering Education. Benzene produced from petroleum.

1951: Edwin M. McMillan (USA, *1907), Glenn Th. Seaborg (USA, *1912) Discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements.

Sir John D. Cockcroft (1897-1967, English), Ernest T.S. Walton (born 1903 -, Irish), Pioneer work in transmutation of atomic nuclei.

1951: The first Fusion Bomb tested. Smith and Baade, identify a radio galaxy.

1952: Archer J. P. Martin (United Kingdom, *1910), Richard L. M. Synge (United Kingdom, 1914-1994)  Invention of distribution chromatography.

Felix Bloch (1905-83, American), Edward M. Purcell (born 1912 American), Methods of measuring magnetic fields of atomic nuclei.

1952: Courant, Livingston, Snyder, Strong focusing principle for particle accelerators. Alvarez, Glaser, bubble chamber. Seaborg et al, elements 99; einsteinium, 100; fermium. Walter Baade, resolves confusion over two different types of Cepheid variable stars. Edward Teller et al, hydrogen bomb.

1952: Du Pont introduces Mylar polyester film.

1953: Hermann Staudinger (Germany, 1881-1965) Discoveries in the area of macromolecular chemistry.

Frits Zernike (1888-1966, Dutch), Phase-contrast microscope and method.

1953: Gell-Mann and Nishijima, strangeness. Gerard de Vaucouleurs, galaxy superclusters and large scale inhomogenieties. Charles Townes, maser. Alpher, Herman, Follin, first recognition of the horizon problem in cosmology.

1953: Francis Crick solved the three-dimensional structure of DNA molecule disclosed by James Watson and discovered in 1950 by Erwin Chargaff. Production of soap exceeded by synthetic detergents.

1954:  Linus Carl Pauling (USA, 1901-1994) Studies on the nature of the chemical bond (molecular structure of proteins)

Max Born (1882-1970, British), Walther Bothe (1891-1957,  German), Contributions to quantum mechanics. Coincidence method of studying cosmic radiation.

1954: Polyisoprene rubber developed.

1954: Soviet troops invade Budapest to destroy oposition. Franco-Algerian war (1954-1962). French defeat in Vietnam Dien Bien Phu.

1955: Vincent du Vigneaud (USA, 1901-1978) Synthesis of a polypeptide hormone.

Willis E. Lamb, Jr. (1913 -, American), Polykarp Kusch ( 1911 -, American), Discoveries concerning structure of hydrogen spectrum. Determination of magnetic moment of the electron.

1955: caesium atomic clock. Martin Ryle, radio telescope interferometry. John Wheeler, describes the space-time foam at the Planck scale. Ilya Prigogine, thermodynamics of irreversible processes. Carl von Weizsacker, Multiple Quantisation and ur-theory. Seaborg et al, element 101, mendelevium. Chamberlain, Segre and Wiegand anti-proton. General Electric produces synthetic diamond.

1956: Sir Cyril N. Hinshelwood (United Kingdom, 1897-1967), Nikolai N. Semjonow (Soviet Union, 1896-1986) Mechanisms of chemical reactions.

William Shockley (1910-89, American), John Bardeen (1908-91, American), Walter H. Brattain (1902-87, American), Development of the transistor effect.

1956: Reines and Cowan, neutrino detection. Cork, Lambertson, Piccioni, Wenzel, evidence for anti-neutron. Block, Lee and Yang, weak interaction could violate parity. Reines and Cowan, anti-neutrino detection. Erwin Muller, field ion microscope and first images of individual atoms. Cook, Lambertson, Piconi, Wentzel, anti-neutron.

1956: Another killer smog in London; 750 die. Suez Canal crisis.

1957 Sir Alexander R. Todd (United Kingdom, *1907) Studies on nucleotides and their coenzymes.

Chen Ning Yang (1922 -, Chinese), Tsung-Dao Lee (1926 -, Chinese), Investigation of parity laws.

1957: Burbidge, Burbidge, Hoyle, Fowler Formation of light elements in stars. Friedman, Lederman, Telegdi, Wu, parity violation in weak decays. Bardeen, Cooper, Schrieffer, BCS theory of superconductivity.Nobelium discovery. Hugh Everett, Many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Feynman, Gell-Mann, Marshak, Sudarshan, V-A theory of weak interactions. John Wheeler, pregeometry and space-time foam.

The Russians launch Sputnik I, the first man-made satellite.

1957: General Electric develops polycarbonate plastics.

1958: Frederick Sanger (United Kingdom, *1918) Structure of proteins, especially of insulin

Pavel A. Cherenkov (1904-90, Soviet), Ilya M. Frank (1908-90, Soviet), Igor E. Tamm (1895-1971, Soviet), Discovery and interpretation of Cherenkov radiation effect.

1958: Townes and Schawlow, theory of laser. Martin Ryle, evidence for evolution of distant cosmological radio sources. Seaborg et al, element 102, nobelium. Gary Feinberg, predicts that muon neutrino is distinct from electron neutrino. David Finkelstein, resolves the nature of the black hole event horizon.

1959: Jaroslav Heyrovský (Czechoslovakia, 1890-1967) Polarography.

Emilio Segre (1905-89, American), Owen Chamberlain (born 1920,  American), Discovery of the antiproton.

1959: MIT, radar echo from Venus. Ramsey, Kleppner, Goldenberg, hydrogen maser atomic clock.

1959: The computer control of chemical processes gains credibility. Large scale Hydrogen plant, for use as rocket fuel, completed by Air Products. Fidel Castro and the Cuban Revolution.

1960: Willard F. Libby (USA, 1908-1980) Application of carbon 14 for age determinations (radiocarbon dating)

Donald A. Glaser (born 1926 -, American), Development of bubble chammber for photographing atomic particles.

1960: Computer network Internet is born. Theodore Maiman builds the first rubi LASER based upon the proposal of Arthur Schawlow.  R. B. Woodward synthesized the chlorophyl molecule. Martin Kruskal, new coordinates to study Schwarzschild black hole. Eugene Wigner, the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in natural science. Pound and Rebka, measurement of gravitational red-shift. Matthews and Sandage, optical identification of a quasar.

1961: Melvin Calvin (USA, *1911) Studies on the assimilation of carbonic acid by plants (photosynthesis)

Robert Hofstadter (1915-90, American), Rudolf L. Mossbauer (born 1929 -, German), Studies in structure of proton and neutron. Work on resonance absorption of gamma rays.

1961: Sheldon Glashow, introduces neutral intermediate boson of electro-weak interactions. Jeoffrey Goldstone, Theory of massless particles in spontaneous symmetry breaking (Goldstone boson). Gell-Mann and Ne'eman, The eightfold way, SU(3) octet symmetry of hadrons. Robert Dicke, Weak anthropic principle. Robert Hofstadter, necleons have an internal structure. Ghiorso, Sikkeland, Larsh, Latimer, element 103, lawrencium. Edward Lorenz, chaos theory. Yuri Gagarin, first man in space. Geoffrey Chew, nuclear democracy and the bootstrap model. Tulio Regge, simplicial lattice general relativity. Alan Shepard becomes the first American into space. Berlin Wall separates West and East Berlin. US Pres. John F. Kennedy and the Bay of Pigs fiasco. Yuri Gagarin and the first manned space flight.

1962 :John Cowdery Kendrew (United Kingdom, *1917), Max Ferdinand Perutz (United Kingdom, Austria, *1914) Studies on the structures of globulin proteins.

Lev D. Landau (1908-68, Soviet), Experiments with liquid helium.

1962: Gell-Mann and Ne'eman, Prediction of Omega minus particle. Leith and Upatnieks, first hologram. Giacconi, Gursky, Paolini, Rossi, detection of cosmic X-rays. Brian Josephson, theory of Jesephson effect. Lederman, Steinberger, Schwartz, evidence for more than one type of neutrino. Hogarth, proposes relation between cosmological and thermodynamic arrows of time. Thomas Gold, time-symmetric universe. Benoit Mandelbrot, fractal images.

1962: End of French-Algerian war, Algeria becomes independent. Cuban missile crisis, the Russians remove their missiles from Cuba. Another London smog; 1,000 die.

1962: Rachel Carson's book, "Silent Spring", presents an emotional plea for protecting human health and the environment from chemical pesticides.

A. Solzhenitsyn "One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch" describing Gulag system in Russia. Mandela jailed for sabotage in South Africa.

1963: Giulio Natta (Italy, 1903-1979), Karl Ziegler (Germany, 1898-1973) Chemistry and technology of high polymers.

Eugene P. Wigner (born 1902 -, Hungarian), Maria G. Mayer (1906-72, American), J. Hans D. Jensen (1907-73, German), Research on structure of the atom and its nucleus.

1963: Samios et al, Baryon Omega minus found. Roy Kerr, solution for a rotating black hole. Schmidt, Greensite, Sandage, quasars are distant. President John F. Kennedy murdered.

1964: Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin (United Kingdom, *1910) Structure determination of biologically important substances by means of X rays

Charles H. Townes (1915 -, American), Nikolai G. Basov (1922 -, Soviet), Aleksandr M. Prokhorov (1916 -, Soviet), Research on laser and maser beams.

1964: Brout, Englert, Higgs, Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking. Hoyle, Taylor, Zeldovich, big bang nucleosynthesis of helium. Steven Weinberg, baryon number is probably not conserved. Gell-Mann, Zweig, quark theory of hadrons. Murray Gell-Mann, current algebra. Roger Penrose, black holes must contain singularities. Ginzburg, Doroshkevich, Novikov, Zel'dovich, black holes have no hair. Salpeter and Zel'dovich, black holes power quasars and radio galaxies. John Bell, a quantum inequality which limits the possibilities for local hidden variable theories.
John Wheeler, foundations of canonical formulism for gravity. soviets, element 104, rutherfordium

1965: Robert Burns Woodward (USA, 1917 - 1979) Syntheses of natural products.

Richard P. Feynman (1918-88, American), Julian S. Schwinger (born 1918, American,) Shin-Ichiro Tomonaga (1906-79, Japanese), Work on defining basic theories of quantum electrodynamics.

1965: Greenberg, Han, Nambu, SU(3) colour symmetry to explain statistics of quark model. Martin Kruskal, Numerical studies of solitons. Penzias and Wilson, detection of the cosmic background radiation. Dicke, Peebles, Roll, Wilkinson, indentification of cosmic background radiation. Rees and Sciama, quasars were more numerable in the past.

1965: American Troops enter the Vietnam War.

1965: Bottles made from polyvinyl chloride gain market share.

1966: Robert S. Mulliken (USA, 1896-1986) Studies on chemical bonds and the electron structure of molecules by means of the orbital method

Alfred Kastler (1902-84, French), Work on optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms.

1966: Fist attempt to control organic solvent emissions made by Los Angeles' Rule 66. Cultural Revolution start in China. The Beatles "Yesterday"

1967: Manfred Eigen (Germany, *1927) George Porter (United Kingdom, *1920) and Ronald G. W. Norrish (United Kingdom, 1897-1978) Investigations of extremely fast chemical reactions

Hans A. Bethe (born 1906 American), Studies in energy production of stars.

1967: Steven Weinberg, electro-weak unification. Bell and Hewish, pulsars. Irwin Shapiro, radar measurment of relativistic time delays to Mercury. John Wheeler, introduced the term "black hole". Andrei Sakharov, three criteria for cosmological abundance of matter over anti-matter. soviets, element 105, dubnium.

Christiaan Barnard perform first heart transplant surgery.

1968: Lars Onsager (USA, Norway, 1903-1976) Studies on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes.

Luis W. Alvarez (1911-88, American), Study and detection of subatomic particles.

1968: Joseph Weber, first attempt at a gravitational wave detector. Brandon Carter, Strong anthropic principle. Gabriele Veneziano, Dual resonance model for strong interaction, beginning of string theory. James Bjorken, theory of scaling behavior in deep inelastic scattering. Richard Feynman, scaling and parton model of nucleons.

1968: Consumption of man-made fibers tops natural fibers in U.S.

1968: French students "May Revolution" generates slogans as the famous: "Forbidden to forbid" and "the imagination to power". Murder of Martin Luther King. Prague spring, political liberalization and Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia.

1969: Odd Hassel (Norway, 1897-1981), Derek H. Barton (United Kingdom, *1918) Development of the concept of conformation.

Murray Gell-Mann (born 1929 American), Discoveries regarding subatomic particles.

1969: Kendall, Friedman, Taylor Deep inelastic scattering experiments find structure inside protons. Ellis, Hawking and Penrose, singularity theorems for the big bang. Roger Penrose, conjectures that singularities are hidden by cosmic censorship. Donald Lynden-Bell, black hole at the centre of galactic nuclei. Raymond Davis, solar neutrino detector. Charles Misner, cosmological horizon problem revisited. Robert Dicke, cosmological flatness problem. Neil Armstrong, first man on the moon, first attempts to verify solar deflection of radio waves from quasars. David Finkelstein, Space-time code.

1969: The Apollo 11 mission succeeds by landing Man on the Moon. The horribly polluted Cuyahoga River, running through Cleveland, actually caught on fire.

1969: Spring revolution in Praga is smashed by Soviet Tanks.

1970: Luis F. Leloir (Argentina, *1906) Discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates

Hannes Alfven (born 1908 Swedish), Louis Neel (born 1904 French), Studies of plasmas (gases) in magnetic fields. Work on antiferromagnetism and ferromagnetism.

1970: Simon Van der Meer, stochastic cooling for particle beams. Stephen Hawking, the surface area of a black holes event horizon always increases. CAT computerizes axial tomography machine.

1970: America holds its first "Earth Day" on April 22. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is formed. It consists of 6,000 employees and has an annual budget of $1.3 billion. Congress passes the "Clean Air Act" establishing national air quality standards. America's heavy dependence on foreign oil results in an Energy Crisis as the Arabs stop shipment to countries which supported Israel in the Arab-Israeli Wars.

1971: Gerhard Herzberg (Canada, *1904) Electron structure and geometry of molecules, particularly of free radicals (molecular spectroscopy)

Dennis Gabor (1900-79, English) (Born in Budapest, Hungary), Invention of holography.

1971: Kenneth Wilson, the operator product expansion and the renormalisation group for the strong force. Dimopolous, Fayet, Gol'fand, Lichtman Supersymmetry. Roger Penrose, spin networks. Bolton, Murdin, Webster Cygnus X-1 identified as black hole candidate. Intel develops first microprocessor chip.

1971: Barry Commoner's "The Closing Circle: Nature, Man & Technology" is published.

1972: Christian B. Anfinsen (USA, *1916) Studies on ribonuclease

Stanford Moore (USA, 1913-1982), William H. Stein (USA, 1911-1980) Studies on the active center of ribonuclease.

John Bardeen (1908-91) American, Leon N. Cooper (born 1930) American, John R. Schrieffer (born 1931) American, Theory of superconductivity.

1972: Jacob Bekenstein, black hole entropy. Fritsch, Gell-Mann, Bardeen , Quantum Chromodynamics. Kirzhnits, Linde, Electro-Weak phase transition. Roger Penrose, Twistors. Salam, Pati, SU(4)xSU(4) unification and proton decay. Tom Bolton Cygnus X-1 identified as black hole.

1972: Congress passes the "Clean Water Act" to confront water pollution. The pesticide DDT banned in the US. Pres. Richard Nixon orders bombings of Hanoi, Vietnam.

1972: The Club of Rome publishes "The Limits to Growth".

1973: Ernst Otto Fischer (Germany, *1918), Geoffrey Wilkinson (United Kingdom, *1921) Chemistry of metal-organic sandwich compounds.

Leo Esaki (born 1925, Japanese), Ivar Giaever (born 1929, American), Brian D. Josephson (born 1940, British), Theories on tunneling phenomena in solids, particularly in semiconductors and superconductors.

1973: Wess and Zumino, space-time supersymmetry. Ostriker and Peebles, dark matter in galaxies. CERN, Evidence of weak neutral currents. Klebesadel, Strong, Olson, Gamma Ray Bursts are cosmic. Edward Tyron, the universe as a quantum fluctuation.

1973: Oil crisis, oil producing countries form OPEC. Watergate scandal breaks out. Paris Peace Accords on Vietnam. The last American Troops leave Vietnam. Military coup in Chile by Gen. Pinochet, president Allende killed.

1973: Stanley Cohen & Herbert Boyer perform the first experiment in Genetic Engineering.

1973: Construction on New York's "World Trade Center" and Chicago's "Sears Tower" are completed.

1974 :Paul J. Flory (USA, 1910-1985) Physical chemistry of macromolecules

Sir Martin Ryle (1918-84) British, Anthony Hewish (born 1924) British, Pioneering research in radioastrophysics.

1974: Yoneya, Scherk, Schwarz interpretation of string theory as a theory of gravity. Georgi and Glashow, SU(5) as Grand Unified Theory and prediction of proton decay. Stephen Hawking, black hole radiation and thermodynamics. soviets and americans, element 106, seaborgium.

1974: Richard Nixon resigns from office after Watergate scandal.

Mid 1970's: Toxic releases including: the Kepone tragedy at Hopewell, VA; the PCB contamination of the Hudson River; and the PBB poisoning of cows in Michigan keep environment issues in the headlines.

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1975: John W. Cornforth (United Kingdom, *1917) Stereochemistry of enzyme catalysis reactions. Vladimir Prelog (Switzerland, Yugoslavia, 1906-1998) Studies on the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions.

James Rainwater (1917-86) American, Aage N. Bohr (born 1922) Danish, Ben Roy Mottelson (born 1926) Danish, Research on the inner structure of the atom.

1975: First edition of "Making Peace with the Planet" by Barry Commoner is published.

1975: Catalytic converters are introduced in many automobiles to meet emissions standards established by the U.S. government. Du Pont recognizes the contributions of Nathaniel C. Wyeth. He was responsible for introducing the plastic soda bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) which quickly replaced their glass predecessors.

1975: Civil war in Lebanon. The Khmer Rouge start "ruralization" in Cambodia killing one fifth of the population. Indira Gandhi declares state of emergency in India and rule by decree. Cuban troops land in Angola.

1976: William N. Lipscomb (USA, *1919) Structure of boranes

Burton Richter (born 1931) American, Samuel Chao Chung Ting (born 1936) American, Discovery of the subatomic J particle, which opened a new field of research.

1976: Scherk, Gliozzi, Olive Supersymmetric string theory Deser, Freedman, Van Nieuwenhuizen, Ferrara, Zumino Supergravity
Levine and Vessot precision test of gravitational time dilation on rocket. Gerard 't Hooft the instantons solution of the U(1) anomaly
soviets element 107, bohrium

1976: Seymour Cray, of Cray Research, makes the Cray-1 Supercomputer.

1976: The U.S. National Academy of Sciences reports that chlorofluorocarbons (Freons) can deplete the Ozone Layer. The U.S. bans the use of chloroform in drugs and cosmetics. U.S. Congress passes the "Toxic Substances Control Act" regulating toxic chemicals.

1976: Viking 1 lands on Mars, becoming the first man-made object to ever soft-land on another planet. Mao Zedong dies and is succeeded by Deng Xiaoping in China . Gang of Four arrested and convicted in China

1977: Ilya Prigogine (Belgium, *1917) Contributions to the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, particularly to the theory of dissipative structures

Philip W. Anderson (born 1923) American, Sir Nevill F. Mott (born 1905) British, John H. Van Vleck (1899-1980) American, Contributions to solid-state electronics, including the development of basic theories of magnetism and conduction. They were credited with discovering the use of economical materials, such as amorphous silicon in the development of computers.

1977: James Elliot, rings of Uranus. Olive and Montenen, conjecture of elecro-magnetic duality. Klaus von Klitzing, quantum Hall effect. Raymond Damadian builds his first Magnetic Resonance Imager (MRI) used to generate 3-D images of the human body using the principles of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak introduce first Apple Computer.

1978: Peter D. Mitchell (United Kingdom, *1920) Studies of biological energy transfer, development of the chemiosmotic theory

Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa (1894-1984) Soviet, Arno Allan Penzias (born 1933) American, Robert Woodrow Wilson (born 1936) American, Research on liquefaction of helium. Discovery of electromagnetic radiation, supporting "big bang'' theory.

1978: Charon, moon of Pluto. Taylor and Hulse, evidence for gravitational radiation of binary pulsar. Prescott, Taylor, elctro-weak effect on electron polarisation.

1978: Chlorofluorcarbons (Freons) are banned as spray propellants in the U.S. because of fears over the Ozone Layer. The U.S. Government begins limiting the amount of lead permitted in gasoline. The action is taken to prevent deterioration of the platinum catalysts in catalytic converters, not to protect the public's safety.

1978: First test tube baby born in England.

1979: Georg Wittig (Germany, 1897-1987), Herbert C. Brown (USA, *1912) Development of (organic) boron and phosphorous compounds.

  Sheldon L. Glashow (born 1932) American, Abdus Salam (born 1926) Pakistani, Steven Weinberg (born 1933) American, Contributions to theory of unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

1979:   Voyager, rings of Jupiter. No one is injured, but many are terrified, by an nuclear reactor incident at Three Mile Island, Pennsylvania. Cellular phones first introduced in Japan.

1979: Genetic Engineering succeeds in synthesising human insulin. Smallpox eradication program of WHO completed

1979: Soviet forces invade Afganistan. The Shah of Iran flees and Ayatollah Khomeini comes into power. Margaret Thatcher becomes Britain´s first woman Prime Minister

Late 1970's: Love Canal (in New York) and the Valley of Drums (10,000 leaking hazardous waste drums near West Point, KY) keep environmental issues in the news and are described as "ticking time bombs."

1980: Paul Berg (USA, *1926) Studies on the biochemistry of nucleic acids, particularly hybrid DNA (technology of gene surgery)

Walter Gilbert (USA, *1932), Frederick Sanger (United Kingdom, 1918) Determination of base sequences in nucleic acids

James W. Cronin (born 1931) American, Val L. Fitch (born 1923) American, Discovery of Cronin-Fitch Effect in the behavior of subatomic particles.

1980: The U.S. Supreme Court rules that General Electric can Patent a microbe used for oil cleanup.The U.S. Government bans the sale of lead based paints.The Superfund, containing $1.6 billion, is formed to be used by the EPA in cleaning up pollution sites.

1980: France explodes a neutron bomb. The "push through tabs" used on today's pop and beer cans are first introduced. Personal computer industry expands. Frederick Reines, Evidence of Neutrino oscillations. Alan Guth inflationary early universe.

1980: Solidarity trade union and Lech Valesa in Poland. War starts between Iran and Iraq. Ronald Reagan defeats incumbent Jimmy Carter in US presidential election. West German Green Party organized and spurs formation of green parties in other countries.

1981: Kenichi Fukui (Japan, *1918), Roald Hoffmann (USA, *1937) Theories on the progress of chemical reactions (frontier orbital theory)

Nicolaas Bloembergen (born 1920) American, Arthur L. Schawlow (born 1921) American, Kai M. Siegbahn (born 1918) Swedish, Discoveries in electron spectroscopy. Pioneering work in the field of laser spectroscopy.

1981: Witten, Schoen, Yau positive energy theorem in general relativity. Green and Schwarz, Type I superstring theory. Binnig, Rohrer  & Heinrich Roher scanning tunneling electron microscope. Alexander Polyakov Path integral quantisation of strings, conformal symmetry and critical dimension. Linde, Albrecht, Steinhardt new inflationary universe.

1981: Microsoft develops MS-DOS for the IBM PC.

1981: Hyprotech develops Hysim, first comercial PC based Process Simulation software for Chemical Engineering.

1981: A rare cancer, Kaposi´s sarcoma, associated with AIDS virus. AIDS first identified as a new infectious disease

1981: NASA's "Columbia" Space Shuttle becomes the world's first reusable space craft.

1982: Aaron Klug (United Kingdom, *1926) Development of crystallographic methods for the elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid protein complexes

Kenneth G. Wilson (born 1936) American, Investigation of phase changes.

1982: Green and Schwarz, Type II superstring theory. Alain Aspect an experiment to confirm non-local aspects of quantum theory. Darnstadt element 109, meitnerium.The compact disc introduced by Philips and Sony. Human insulin produced in bacteria approved by FDA in the US.

1982 Israel invades Lebanon and neutralizes PLO and Syrian forces. Falkland (Malvinas) war as Argentina invades Falkland Islands. Worldwide ban on whaling. Iran gets the upper hand in its war with Irak.

1983: Henry Taube (Canada, *1915) Reaction mechanisms of electron transfer, especially with metal complexes

Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar (born 1910) American, William A. Fowler (born 1911) American, Pioneering work on the evolution of stars.

1983: Carl Sagan, and a group of scientists, publishes an alarming report concerning the long term climatic impacts of nuclear war. Andrei Linde chaotic inflationary universe

1984: Robert Bruce Merrifield (USA, *1921) Method for the preparation of peptides and proteins

Carlo Rubbia (born 1934) Italian, Simon van der Meer (born 1925) Dutch, Discovery of W and Z field particles as proof of weak-force theory. Design of colliding-beam accelerator that led to discovery of W and Z field particles.

1984: Darnstadt element 108, hassium. AT&T is broken into "Baby Bells" by the U.S. government. Apple introduces the Macintosh personal computer.

1984: An accidental toxic gas release by Union Carbide kills over 2000 in Bhopal, India. HIV virus found to cause AIDS

1985: Herbert A. Hauptman (USA, 1917), Jerome Karle (USA, 1918) Development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures

Klaus von Klitzing (born 1943) German, Application of quantum theory to commercial electronics.

1985: Mikhail Gorbachev succeds Chernenko as Secretary of Soviet Communist Party. "Glasnost" and "Perestroika" in Soviet Union.

1985: Richard E. Smalley and Harold W. Kroto discover "Buckyballs", a soccer ball like molecule made of 60 carbon atoms. Gross, Harvey, Martinec, Rohm, heterotic string theory. David Deutsch, theory of quantum computing.

1985: Low petroleum prices lead to the cancellation of the U.S. Government sponsored "Synfuels" project, designed to develop alternative energy sources based on coal or oil shales.

1986: John C. Polanyi (Canada, *1929), Dudley R. Herschbach (USA, *1932), Yuan Tseh Lee (USA, *1936) Dynamics of chemical elementary processes

Ernst Ruska (1906-88) German, Gerd Binnig (born 1947) German, Heinrich Rohrer (born 1933) Swiss, Invention of the first working electron microscope. Invention of the scanning tunneling microscope.

1986: Bednorz and Mueller, high temperature superconductivity
Abhay Ashtekar, new variables for canonical quantum gravity
Geller, Huchra, Lapparent, bubble structure of galaxy distributions

1986: Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor #4 explodes, releasing large amounts of radiation near Kiev, USSR. NASA's Space Shuttle, Challenger, explodes shortly after take off. Murder of Swedish Premier Olof Palme.

1986: K. Alex Muller and George J. Bednorz discover a superconductor that operates at 30 degrees Kelvin. This sets of an explosion in "high" temperature superconductors.

1987: Donald J. Cram (USA, *1919), Charles J. Pedersen (USA, 1904-1989), Jean-Marie Lehn (France, *1939) Development of molecules with structurally specific interaction of high selectivity.

Johannes Georg Bednorz (born 1950) German, Karl A. Muller (born 1927) Swiss, Discoveries in the field of superconductivity.

1987: Masatoshi Koshibas, detection of neutrinos from a supernova

1987: Japan's "Nipon Zeon" company develops a plastic with "memory". At low temperatures it can be bent and twisted, however when heated above 37 degrees Celsius it returns to its initial shape.

Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev sign treaty on nuclear arms.

1988: Johann Deisenhofer (Germany, *1943), Robert Huber (Germany, *1937), Hartmut Michel (Germany, *1948) Determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction center.

Leon Max Lederman (born 1922) American, Melvin Schwartz (born 1932) American, Jack Steinberger (born 1921) American, Discovery of a new subatomic particle, the muon neutrino.

1988: Mikhail Gorbachev withdraws defeated Soviet troops from Afghanistan. Iraqi forces attack Kurdish insurgents using poison gas

1988: RU-486 abortion pill developed by French scientist Etienne Baulieu. A Scanning Tunneling Microscope produces the first picture of a Benzene Ring. Atiyah, Witten, topological quantum field theories. Smolin and Rovelli, loop representation of quantum gravity.

1989: Sidney Altman (Canada, *1939), Thomas Robert Cech (USA, *1947) Discovery of the catalytic properties of ribonucleic acid (RNA).

Hans G. Dehmelt (born 1922) American, Wolfgang Paul (born 1913) German, Norman F. Ramsey (born 1915) American, Development of method to isolate charged particles and atoms to study properties. Work leading to development of atomic clock.

1989: The Human Genome Project, designed to map all the genes in a human being, is launched. An Exxon Oil Tanker, the Valdez, runs aground in of the coast of Alaska.

1989: Tim Berners-Lee, The World Wide Web. Bennett and Brassard, first quantum computer.

1989: The fall of Berlin Wall. Massive pro-democracy demonstration in East Germany. Tiananmen Square massacre in Beijing. Czechoslovakia becomes a free nation with Vaclav Havel as its president. Trade union "Solidarity" legalized in Poland. Saddam Hussein of Iraq kills 5000 Kurds using gas. Ayatollah Khomeini pronounces religious ruling (fatwah) over Salman Rushdie.

1990: Elias James Corey (USA, *1928) Development of novel methods for the synthesis of complex natural compounds (retrosynthetic analysis)

Richard E. Taylor (born 1929) Canadian, Jerome I. Friedman (born 1930) American, Henry W. Kendall (born 1926) American, Work to prove the existence of the quark.

1990: John Mather, black body spectrum of cosmic background radiation from COBE

1990: Congress passes the "Pollution Prevention Act" which "encourages" companies to reduce pollution. Global satellite positioning, cellular telephones. Hubble Space Telescope in orbit

1990: Lithuania declares independence from Soviet Union in March 11. As response URSS sends troops and blocks gas and oil supplies. Saddam Hussein sends Iraqi troups to invade Kuwait. The US invades Panama to oust General Noriega. Nelson Mandela released from South African jail: President Willem De Klerck.

1991: Richard Robert Ernst (Switzerland, *1933) Development of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)

Pierre-Gilles de Gennes (born 1932) French, Work on how complex forms of matter behave.

1991: CERN, confirmation that number of light neutrinos is 3

1991: The Soviet Union formally dissolves, after a failed putch against Gorbachev. Boris Yeltsin takes over Russian government. Baltic states regain their independence. Croatia and Slovenia declare independence as Yugoslavia falls apart. Bosnia and Herzegovina secede from Yugoslavia.

1991: Operation "Desert Storm" ousts Iraqi troops from Kuwait in the decisive U.S. success versus Iraq in the Gulf War. Ecological disaster in Persian Gulf as Iraq sets fire to oil wells.

1992 : Rudolph A. Marcus (USA, *1923) Theories of electron transfer

Georges Charpak (born 1924) French, Development of detector devices used in particle accelerators.

1992: Mather and Smoot, angular fluctuations in cosmic background radiation with COBE. The Australian Government begins a three year plan to introduce plastic $5, $10, $20, $50, & $100 bills.

1993: Kary Banks Mullis (USA, *1944) Invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Michael Smith (Canada, *1932) Development of site specific mutagenesis.

Russell Hulse American (1952) Princeton University, Joseph Taylor American (1942) Princeton University, For discovering binary pulsars. They are dense spinning stars which give off pulses of magnetic energy.

1993: New York's "World Trade Center" is bombed by terrorists. The explosive was created by a 26-year-old chemical engineer educated at Rutgers University.War in Yugoslavia. Insurrection in Moscow by opponents to Yeltsin.

1993: The high price of replacing a corroding heat exchanger causes the Portland General Electric Company to retire, rather than repair, its Nuclear Power Plant in Rainier Oregon.

1993: Procter & Gamble adds the cellulose enzyme to "Cheer". This enzyme breaks down cellulose (plant fiber) and it is hoped that it will promote digestion of damaged cotton fibers, leaving undamaged ones intact.

1994: George A. Olah (USA) Carbocations

Clifford G. Shull (Canadian) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Bertram N. Brockhouse (American) McMaster University, Both researchers, pioneers in the field of neutron scattering, developed neutron spectroscopy, a method of studying atoms, the elements that make up all matter.

1994: Hubble Space Telescope, Evidence for black hole at the centre of galaxy M87. Peter Shor, factorisation algorithm for a quantum computer. Hull, Townsend, Unity of String Dualities. Darnstadt element 110. Opening of channel tunnel offering fast rail communication between UK and the continent.

Israeli-Palestinian Peace accords. Genocide in Rwanda as hardline Hutus murder approx. 1 million Tutsis. War in Chechnya as it tries to break free from Russia. Restoration of Michelangelo´s fresco in Sistine Chapel completed.

1995 : Paul Crutzen (Netherlands, *1933), Mario Molina (Mexico, *1943), Frank Sherwood Rowland (USA, *1927) for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone.

Martin L. Perl of Stanford University, Frederick Reines of the University of California, Irvine, Two of nature's most remarkable subatomic particles, tau and the neutrino

1995: Cornell, Wieman, Anderson Bose-Einstein condensate of atomic gas. CERN, Creation of Anti-hydrogen atoms. Mayor and Queloz, first extra-solar planet orbiting an ordinary star. Darnstadt element 111.

1995: The Shinri Kyo cult uses Sarin nerve gas in the deadly Tokyo subway attack. A bomb made from ammonium nitrate fertilizer and fuel oil destroys the Federal Building in Oklahoma City. Mad cow disease. New infectious agent suspected of causing disease in man.

1995: Chemical Engineering Progress publishes a paper submitted by L.Klemas and J. Bonilla on Maldistribution and Efficiency in Packed Distillation Columns, providing a coherent theory to predict mass transfer efficiency in distillation columns.

1996 : Robert F. Curl, Jr. (USA, *1933), Sir Harold W. Kroto (United Kingdom, *1939), Richard E. Smalley (USA, *1943) for their discovery of fullerenes.

David M. Lee Cornell University American, Douglas D. Osheroff -- Stanford University American, Robert C. Richardson -- Cornell University American, For their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3.

1996: Steven Lamoreaux, measurement of Casimir force. Darnstadt element 112. Space Research: Mars Pathfinder and Mars Global Surveyor launched. Banks, Fischler, Shenker, Susskind, M-theory as a matrix model.

1997 : Paul D. Boyer (USA, *1918), John E. Walker (United Kingdom, *1941) for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Jens C. Skou (Denmark, *1918) for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+-ATPase

1998: Robert B. Laughlin, Stanford University, California, USA, Horst L. Störmer, Columbia University, New York and Bell Labs, New Jersey, USA, Daniel C. Tsui, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA, experiment using extremely powerful magnetic fields and low temperatures. the electrons in a powerful magnetic field can condense to form a kind of quantum fluid related to the quantum fluids that occur in superconductivity and in liquid helium.They receive the Nobel in physics for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations.

1998:Walter Kohn, University of California at Santa Barbara, USA  for his development of the density-functional theory and John A. Pople, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA (British citizen) for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry

1998:Robert F Furchgott, Louis J Ignarro and Ferid Murad awarded Nobel Price in Medicine for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system.

1998: Sexgate scandal of the US President. USA second war against Iraq, this time without approval of the UN Security Council, lasting 4 days bombardments, followed by the air force enforcement of the exclusion zone.

1999: USA commands NATO forces to strike Yugoslavia to oust their military forces from Kosovo, producing 1 million refugees as a result of this 'humanitarian war'. The actions justified a US military budget increase of 12,000 (or 120,000 ?) million dollars for this 79 days 'high tech nintendo' war, while the international community collected around 600 million dollars to help for Kosovo and Yugoslavia 'reconstruction'. Russian second war against Chechnya, after governement accusations related to terrorist attacks in Moscow. Boris Yeltsin resigns and is replaced by Putin, a former KGB agent, who directs the total brutal war in Chechnya. US Congress voted against the US commitment to the International Treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

1999: Nobel Prize in Chemistry: Ahmed H. Zewail, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA for showing that it is possible with rapid laser technique to see how atoms in a molecule move during a chemical reaction. The Academy's citation: For his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy.

1999: Nobel Prize in Physics: Gerardus 't Hooft, University of Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands, Martinus J.G. Veltman, Bilthoven, the Netherlands. The two researchers are being awarded the Nobel Prize for having placed particle physics theory on a firmer mathematical foundation. They have in particular shown how the theory may be used for precise calculations of physical quantities. Experiments at accelerator laboratories in Europe and the USA have recently confirmed many of the calculated results. The Academy's citation: "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics."

1999: Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine: Günter Blobel for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell.

1999: Unprecedent disasters exacerbated by global warming hit Central America (Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala)  and Venezuela, producing a toll of around 50,000 deaths and many billions US$ in material damages, exceeding the all time disaster records of 1998. Although many developed countries provided some relief help as usual in such cases, there in no question yet on economic responsibility for collateral damages of the wrong economic-technological model egocentrically pursued by the rich overdeveloped world countries.

For a peaceful, happy, and prosperous new millennium for the next generations, when all human beings reach the benefits of  science, technology, and culture, learning the value and joy of life, the equitable sharing of resources and knowledge, in communion and respect with the nature in all its rich diversity that has nourished all the previous generations. 

Information without knowledge is noise, knowledge without wisdom is dangerous stupidity

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